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The Old Man and the Sea 

The Old Man and the Sea 
By Ernest Hemingway 

www. Asiainq. com 

To Charlie Shribner 

To Max Perkins 

He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone 
eighty- four days now without taking a fish. In the first forty days a boy had been with him. 
But after forty days without a fish the boy's parents had told him that the old man was 
now definitely and finally salao, which is the worst form of unlucky, and the boy had gone 
at their orders in another boat which caught three good fish the first week. It made the 
boy sad to see the old man come in each day with his skiff empty and he always went 
down to help him carry either the coiled lines or the gaff and harpoon and the sail that 
was furled around the mast. The sail was patched with flour sacks and, furled, it looked 
like the flag of permanent defeat. 

The old man was thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck. The 
brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer the sun brings from its [9] reflection on the 
tropic sea were on his cheeks. The blotches ran well down the sides of his face and his 
hands had the deep- creased scars from handling heavy fish on the cords. But none of 
these scars were fresh. They were as old as erosions in a fishless desert. 

Everything about him was old except his eyes and they were the same color as the 
sea and were cheerful and undefeated. 

"Santiago," the boy said to him as they climbed the bank from where the skiff was 
hauled up. "I could go with you again. We've made some money." 

The old man had taught the boy to fish and the boy loved him. 

"No," the old man said. "You're with a lucky boat. Stay with them." 

"But remember how you went eighty- seven days without fish and then we caught big 
ones every day for three weeks." 

- 1 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

"I remember/' the old man said. "I know you did not leave me because you doubted." 

"It was papa made me leave. I am a boy and I must obey him." 

"I know/' the old man said. "It is quite normal." 

"He hasn't much faith." 

[ 10] "No/' the old man said. "But we have. Haven't we?" 

'Yes/' the boy said. "Can I offer you a beer on the Terrace and then we'll take the stuff 

"Why not?" the old man said. "Between fishermen." 

They sat on the Terrace and many of the fishermen made fun of the old man and he 
was noteangry. Others, of the older fishermen, looked at him and were sad. But they did 
not show it and they spoke politely about the current and the depths they had drifted 
their lines at and the steady good weather and of what they had seen. The successful 
fishermen of that day were already in and had butchered their marlin out and carried 
them laid full length across two planks, with two men staggering at the end of each plank, 
to the fish house where they waited for the ice truck to carry them to the market in 
Havana. Those who had caught sharks had taken them to the shark factory on the other 
side of the cove where they were hoisted on a block and tackle, their livers removed, their 
fins cut off and their hides skinned out and their flesh cut into strips for salting. 

When the wind was in the east a smell came across the harbour from the shark 
factory; but today there [11] was only the faint edge of the odour because the wind had 
backed into the north and then dropped off and it was pleasant and sunny on the Terrace. 

"Santiago," the boy said. 

'Yes," the old man said. He was holding his glass and thinking of many years ago. 

"Can I go out to get sardines for you for tomorrow?" 

"No. Go and play baseball. I can still row and Rogelio will throw the net." 

"I would like to go. If I cannot fish with you. I would like to serve in some way." 

'You bought me a beer," the old man said. 'You are already a man." 

"How old was I when you first took me in a boat?" 

"Five and you nearly were killed when I brought the frsh in too green and he nearly 
tore the boat to pieces. Can you remember?" 

"I can remember the tail slapping and banging and the thwart breaking and the 
noise of the clubbing. I can remember you throwing me into the bow where the wet coiled 
lines were and feeling the whole boat shiver and the noise of you clubbing him like 
chopping a tree down and the sweet blood smell all over me." 

[ 12] "Can you really remember that or did I just tell it to you?" 


The Old Man and the Sea 

"I remember everything from when we first went together." 

The old man looked at him with his sun- burned, confident loving eyes. 

"If you were my boy I'd take you out and gamble/' he said. "But you are your father's 
and your mother's and you are in a lucky boat." 

"May I get the sardines? I know where I can get four baits too." 

"I have mine left from today. I put them in salt in the box." 

"Let me get four fresh ones." 

"One," the old man said. His hope and his confidence had never gone. But now they 
were freshening as when the breeze rises. 

'Two/' the boy said. 

'Two/' the old man agreed. 'You didn't steal them?" 

"I would," the boy said. "But I bought these." 

"Thank you," the old man said. He was too simple to wonder when he had attained 
humility. But he [ 13] knew he had attained it and he knew it was not disgraceful and it 
carried no loss of true pride. 

'Tomorrow is going to be a good day with this current," he said. 

"Where are you going?" the boy asked. 

"Far out to come in when the wind shifts. I want to be out before it is light." 

"I'll try to get him to work far out," the boy said. "Then if you hook something truly 
big we can come to your aid." 

"He does not like to work too far out." 

"No," the boy said. "But I will see something that he cannot see such as a bird 
working and get 

him to come out after dolphin." "Are his eyes that bad?" 'He is almost blind." "It is 
strange," the old man said. "He never went turtle- ing. That is what kills the eyes." "But 
you went turtle- ing for years off the Mosquito Coast and your eyes are good." 

"I am a strange old man" 

"But are you strong enough now for a truly big fish?" 

"I think so. And there are many tricks." 

[14] "Let us take the stuff home," the boy said. "So I can get the cast net and go after 
the sardines." 

They picked up the gear from the boat. The old man carried the mast on his shoulder 

- 3 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

and the boy carried the wooden boat with the coiled, hard- braided brown lines, the gaff 
and the harpoon with its shaft. The box with the baits was under the stem of the skiff 
along with the club that was used to subdue the big fish when they were brought 
alongside. No one would steal from the old man but it was better to take the sail and the 
heavy lines home as the dew was bad for them and, though he was guite sure no local 
people would steal from him, the old man thought that a gaff and a harpoon were 
needless temptations to leave in a boat. 

They walked up the road together to the old man's shack and went in through its 
open door. The old man leaned the mast with its wrapped sail against the wall and the 
boy put the box and the other gear beside it. The mast was nearly as long as the one room 
of the shack. The shack was made of the tough budshields of the royal palm which are 
called guano and in it there was a bed, a table, one chair, and a place on the dirt floor to 
cook with charcoal. On the brown walls of the flattened, overlapping leaves of the sturdy 
fibered [15] guano there was a picture in color of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and another 
of the Virgin of Cobre. These were relics of his wife. Once there had been a tinted 
photograph of his wife on the wall but he had taken it down because it made him too 
lonely to see it and it was on the shelf in the comer under his clean shirt. 

"What do you have to eat?" the boy asked. 

"A pot of yellow rice with fish. Do you want some?" 

"No. I will eat at home. Do you want me to make the fire?" 

"No. I will make it later on. Or I may eat the rice cold." 

"May I take the cast net?" 

"Of course." 

There was no cast net and the boy remembered when they had sold it. But they went 

this fiction every day. There was no pot of yellow rice and fish and the boy knew this 
too. "Eighty- five is a lucky number," the old man said. "How would you like to see me 
bring one in that dressed out over a thousand pounds?" "I'll get the cast net and go for 
sardines. Will you sit in the sun in the doorway?" 

[16] 'Yes. I have yesterday's paper and I will read the baseball." The boy did not 
know whether yesterday's paper was a fiction too. But the old man brought it out from 
under the bed. 

"Perico gave it to me at the bodega," he explained. "I'll be back when I have the 
sardines. I'll keep yours and mine together on ice and we can share them in the morning. 
When I come back you can tell me about the baseball." 

"The Yankees cannot lose." 

"But I fear the Indians of Cleveland." 


The Old Man and the Sea 

"Have faith in the Yankees my son. Think of the great DiMaggio." 

"I fear both the Tigers of Detroit and the Indians of Cleveland." 

"Be careful or you will fear even the Reds of Cincinnati and the White Sax of 

'You study it and tell me when I come back." 

"Do you think we should buy a terminal of the lottery with an eighty- five? Tomorrow 
is the 

eighty- fifth day." 'We can do that/' the boy said. "But what about the eighty- seven of 
your great record?" 

[ 17] "It could not happen twice. Do you think you can find an eighty- five?" 

"I can order one. 

"One sheet. That's two dollars and a half. Who can we borrow that from?" 

"That's easy. I can always borrow two dollars and a half." 

"I think perhaps I can too. But I try not to borrow. First you borrow. Then you beg." 

"Keep warm old man/' the boy said. "Remember we are in September." 

"The month when the great frsh come/' the old man said. "Anyone can be a 
fisherman in May." 

"I go now for the sardines/' the boy said. 

When the boy came back the old man was asleep in the chair and the sun was down. 
The boy took the old army blanket off the bed and spread it over the back of the chair and 
over the old man's shoulders. They were strange shoulders, still powerful although very 
old, and the neck was still strong too and the creases did not show so much when the old 
man was asleep and his head fallen forward. His shirt had been patched so many times 
that it was like the sail and the patches were faded to many different shades by the sun. 
The [ 18] old man's head was very old though and with his eyes closed there was no life in 
his face. The newspaper lay across his knees and the weight of his arm held it there in the 
evening breeze. He was barefooted. 

The boy left him there and when he came back the old man was still asleep. 

'Wake up old man," the boy said and put his hand on one of the old man's knees. 

The old man opened his eyes and for a moment he was coming back from a long way 
away. Then he smiled. 

"What have you got?" he asked. 

"Supper," said the boy. 'We're going to have supper." 


The Old Man and the Sea 

"I'm not very hungry." 

"Come on and eat. You can't fish and not eat." 

"I have/' the old man said getting up and taking the newspaper and folding it. Then 
he started to fold the blanket. 

"Keep the blanket around you/' the boy said. 'You'll not fish without eating while I'm 

"Then live a long time and take care of yourself/' the old man said. "What are we 

"Black beans and rice, fried bananas, and some stew." 

[19] The boy had brought them in a two-decker metal container from the Terrace. 
The two sets of knives and forks and spoons were in his pocket with a paper napkin 
wrapped around each set. 

"Who gave this to you?" 

"Martin. The owner." 

"I must thank him." 

"I thanked him already," the boy said. 'You don't need to thank him." 

"I'll give him the belly meat of a big fish," the old man said. "Has he done this for us 
more than once?" 

"I think so." 

"I must give him something more than the belly meat then. He is very thoughtful for 

"He sent two beers." 

"I like the beer in cans best." 

"I know. But this is in bottles, Hatuey beer, and I take back the bottles." 

"That's very kind of you," the old man said. "Should we eat?" 

"I've been asking you to," the boy told him gently. "I have not wished to open the 
container until you were ready." 

[20] 'I'm ready now," the old man said. "I only needed time to wash." 

Where did you wash? the boy thought. The village water supply was two streets 
down the road. I must have water here for him, the boy thought, and soap and a good 
towel. Why am I so thoughtless? I must get him another shirt and a jacket for the winter 
and some sort of shoes and another blanket. 


The Old Man and the Sea 

'Your stew is excellent/' the old man said. 

'Tell me about the baseball/' the boy asked him. 

"In the American League it is the Yankees as I said/' the old man said happily." 

"They lost today/' the boy told him. 

"That means nothing. The great DiMaggio is himself again." 

"They have other men on the team." 

"Naturally. But he makes the difference. In the other league, between Brooklyn and 
Philadelphia I must take Brooklyn. But then I think of Dick Sisler and those great drives 
In the old park." 

"There was nothing ever like them. He hits the longest ball I have ever seen." 

"Do you remember when he used to come to the Terrace?" 

[21] "I wanted to take him fishing but I was too timid to ask him. Then I asked you to 
ask him and you were too timid." "I know. It was a great mistake. He might have gone 
with us. Then we would have that for all of our lives." "I would like to take the great 
DiMaggio fishing/' the old man said. "They say his father was a fisherman. Maybe he was 
as poor as we are and would understand." "The great Sisler's father was never poor and 
he, the father, was playing in the Big Leagues when he was my age." "When I was your 
age I was before the mast on a square rigged ship that ran to Africa and I 

have seen lions on the beaches in the evening." 

"I know. You told me." 

"Should we talk about Africa or about baseball?" 

"Baseball I think," the boy said. 'Tell me about the great John J . McGraw." He said 
J ota for J . 

"He used to come to the Terrace sometimes too in the older days. But he was rough 
and harsh- spoken and difficult when he was drinking. His mind was on horses as well as 
baseball. At least he carried lists of [22] horses at all times in his pocket and frequently 
spoke the names of horses on the telephone. " 

"He was a great manager," the boy said. "My father thinks he was the greatest." 

"Because he came here the most times," the old man said. 'If Durocher had 
continued to come here each year your father would think him the greatest manager." 

"Who is the greatest manager, really, Luque or Mike Gonzalez?" 

"I think they are equal." 

"And the best fisherman is you." 


The Old Man and the Sea 

"No. I know others better." 

"Que Va," the boy said. "There are many good fishermen and some great ones. But 
there is only you." 

"Thank you. You make me happy. I hope no fish will come along so great that he will 
prove us wrong." 

"There is no such fish if you are still strong as you say." 

"I may not be as strong as I think/' the old man said. "But I know many tricks and I 
have resolution." 'You ought to go to bed now so that you will be fresh in the morning. I 
will take the things back to the Terrace." 

[23] "Good night then. I will wake you in the morning." 

'You're my alarm clock/' the boy said. 

"Age is my alarm clock/' the old man said. "Why do old men wake so early? Is it to 
have one longer day?" 

"I don't know/' the boy said. "All I know is that young boys sleep late and hard." 

"I can remember it/' the old man said. "I'll waken you in time." 

"I do not like for him to waken me. It is as though I were inferior." 

"I know." 

"Sleep well old man." 

The boy went out. They had eaten with no light on the table and the old man took off 
his trousers and went to bed in the dark. He rolled his trousers up to make a pillow, 
putting the newspaper inside them. He rolled himself in the blanket and slept on the 
other old newspapers that covered the springs of the bed. 

He was asleep in a short time and he dreamed of Africa when he was a boy and the 
long golden beaches and the white beaches, so white they hurt your eyes, and the high 
capes and the great brown mountains. He lived along that coast now every night and in 
his dreams he heard the surf roar and saw the native boats [24] come riding through it. 
He smelled the tar and oakum of the deck as he slept and he smelled the smell of Africa 
that the land breeze brought at morning. 

Usually when he smelled the land breeze he woke up and dressed to go and wake the 
boy. But tonight the smell of the land breeze came very early and he knew it was too early 
in his dream and went on dreaming to see the white peaks of the Islands rising from the 
sea and then he dreamed of the different harbours and roadsteads of the Canary Islands. 

He no longer dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of 
great fish, nor fights, nor contests of strength, nor of his wife. He only dreamed of places 
now and of the lions on the beach. They played like young cats in the dusk and he loved 
them as he loved the boy. He never dreamed about the boy. He simply woke, looked out 
the open door at the moon and unrolled his trousers and put them on. He urinated 

The Old Man and the Sea 

outside the shack and then went up the road to wake the boy. He was shivering with the 
morning cold. But he knew he would shiver himself warm and that soon he would be 

The door of the house where the boy lived was unlocked and he opened it and 
walked in quietly with his [25] bare feet. The boy was asleep on a cot in the first room and 
the old man could see him clearly with the light that came in from the dying moon. He 
took hold of one foot gently and held it until the boy woke and turned and looked at him. 
The old man nodded and the boy took his trousers from the chair by the bed and, sitting 
on the bed, pulled them on. 

The old man went out the door and the boy came after him. He was sleepy and the 
old man put his arm across his shoulders and said, "I am sorry." 

"Qua Va," the boy said. "It is what a man must do." 

They walked down the road to the old man's shack and all along the road, in the dark, 
barefoot men were moving, carrying the masts of their boats. 

When they reached the old man's shack the boy took the rolls of line in the basket 
and the harpoon and gaff and the old man carried the mast with the furled sail on his 

"Do you want coffee?" the boy asked. 

'We'll put the gear in the boat and then get some." 

They had coffee from condensed milk cans at an early morning place that served 

"How did you sleep old man?" the boy asked. He [26] was waking up now although it 
was still hard for him to leave his sleep. 

"Very well, Manolin," the old man said. "I feel confident today." 

"So do I," the boy said. "Now I must get your sardines and mine and your fresh baits. 
He brings our gear himself. He never wants anyone to carry anything." 

'We're different," the old man said. "I let you carry things when you were five years 


"I know it," the boy said. "I'll be right back. Have another coffee. We have credit 

He walked off, bare- footed on the coral rocks, to the ice house where the baits were 

The old man drank his coffee slowly. It was all he would have all day and he knew 
that he should take it. For a long time now eating had bored him and he never carried a 
lunch. He had a bottle of water in the bow of the skiff and that was all he needed for the 


The Old Man and the Sea 

The boy was back now with the sardines and the two baits wrapped in a newspaper 
and they went down the trail to the skiff, feeling the pebbled sand under their feet, and 
lifted the skiff and slid her into the water. 

[27] "Good luck old man." 

"Good luck," the old man said. He fitted the rope lashings of the oars onto the thole 
pins and, leaning forward against the thrust of the blades in the water, he began to row 
out of the harbour in the dark. There were other boats from the other beaches going out 
to sea and the old man heard the dip and push of their oars even though he could not see 
them now the moon was below the hills. 

Sometimes someone would speak in a boat. But most of the boats were silent except 
for the dip of the oars. They spread apart after they were out of the mouth of the harbour 
and each one headed for the part of the ocean where he hoped to find fish. The old man 
knew he was going far out and he left the smell of the land behind and rowed out into the 
clean early morning smell of the ocean. He saw the phosphorescence of the Gulf weed in 
the water as he rowed over the part of the ocean that the fishermen called the great well 
because there was a sudden deep of seven hundred fathoms where all sorts of fish 
congregated because of the swirl the current made against the steep walls of the floor of 
the ocean. Here there were concentrations of shrimp and bait fish and sometimes schools 
of sguid in the deepest holes and these rose close to the surface at night where all the 
wandering fish fed on them. 

In the dark the old man could feel the morning coming and as he rowed he heard the 
trembling sound as flying fish left the water and the hissing that their stiff set wings made 
as they soared away in the darkness. He was very fond of flying fish as they were his 
principal friends on the ocean. He was sorry for the birds, especially the small delicate 
dark terns that were always flying and looking and almost never finding, and he thought, 
the birds have a harder life than we do except for the robber birds and the heavy strong 
ones. Why did they make birds so delicate and fine as those sea swallows when the ocean 
can be so cruel? She is kind and very beautiful. But she can be so cruel and it comes so 
suddenly and such birds that fly, dipping and hunting, with their small sad voices are 
made too delicately for the sea. 

He always thought of the sea as la mar which is what people call her in Spanish when 
they love her. Sometimes those who love her say bad things of her but they are always 
said as though she were a woman. Some of the younger fishermen, those who used buoys 
as floats for their lines and had motorboats, bought [29] when the shark livers had 
brought much money, spoke of her as el mar which is masculine. They spoke of her as a 
contestant or a place or even an enemy. But the old man always thought of her as 
feminine and as something that gave or withheld great favours, and if she did wild or 
wicked things it was because she could not help them. The moon affects her as it does a 
woman, he thought. 

He was rowing steadily and it was no effort for him since he kept well within his 
speed and the surface of the ocean was flat except for the occasional swirls of the current. 
He was letting the current do a third of the work and as it started to be light he saw he 
was already further out than he had hoped to be at this hour. 

- 10- 

The Old Man and the Sea 

I worked the deep wells for a week and did nothing, he thought. Today I'll work out 
where the schools of bonito and albacore are and maybe there will be a big one with them. 
Before it was really light he had his baits out and was drifting with the current. One bait 
was down forty fathoms. The second was at seventy- five and the third and fourth were 
down in the blue 

water at one [30] hundred and one hundred and twenty- five fathoms. Each bait 
hung head down with the shank of the hook inside the bait fish, tied and sewed solid and 
all the projecting part of the hook, the curve and the point, was covered with fresh 
sardines. Each sardine was hooked through both eyes so that they made a half- garland on 
the projecting steel. There was no part of the hook that a great fish could feel which was 
not sweet smelling and good tasting. 

The boy had given him two fresh small tunas, or albacores, which hung on the two 
deepest lines like plummets and, on the others, he had a big blue runner and a yellow 
jack that had been used before; but they were in good condition still and had the 
excellent sardines to give them scent and attractiveness. Each line, as thick around as a 
big pencil, was looped onto a green- sapped stick so that any pull or touch on the bait 
would make the stick dip and each line had two forty- fathom coils which could be made 
fast to the other spare coils so that, if it were necessary, a fish could take out over three 
hundred fathoms of line. 

Now the man watched the dip of the three sticks over the side of the skiff and rowed 
gently to keep the [31] lines straight up and down and at their proper depths. It was quite 
light and any moment now the sun would rise. 

The sun rose thinly from the sea and the old man could see the other boats, low on 
the water and well in toward the shore, spread out across the current. Then the sun was 
brighter and the glare came on the water and then, as it rose clear, the flat sea sent it back 
at his eyes so that it hurt sharply and he rowed without looking into it. He looked down 
into the water and watched the lines that went straight down into the dark of the water. 
He kept them straighter than anyone did, so that at each level in the darkness of the 
stream there would be a bait waiting exactly where he wished it to be for any fish that 
swam there. Others let them drift with the current and sometimes they were at sixty 
fathoms when the fishermen thought they were at a hundred. 

But, he thought, I keep them with precision. Only I have no luck any more. But who 
knows? Maybe today. Every day is a new day. It is better to be lucky. But I would rather 
be exact. Then when luck comes you are ready. 

The sun was two hours higher now and it did not [32] hurt his eyes so much to look 
into the east. There were only three boats in sight now and they showed very low and far 

All my life the early sun has hurt my eyes, he thought. Yet they are still good. In the 
evening I can look straight into it without getting the blackness. It has more force in the 
evening too. But in the morning it is painful. 

J ust then he saw a man-of-war bird with his long black wings circling in the sky 
ahead of him. He made a quick drop, slanting down on his back- swept wings, and then 

- n - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

circled again. 

"He's got something/' the old man said aloud. "He's not just looking." 

He rowed slowly and steadily toward where the bird was circling. He did not hurry 
and he kept his lines straight up and down. But he crowded the current a little so that he 
was still fishing correctly though faster than he would have fished if he was not trying to 
use the bird. 

The bird went higher in the air and circled again, his wings motionless. Then he dove 
suddenly and the old man saw flying fish spurt out of the water and sail desperately over 
the surface. 

[33] "Dolphin," the old man said aloud. "Big dolphin." 

He shipped his oars and brought a small line from under the bow. It had a wire 
leader and a medium- sized hook and he baited it with one of the sardines. He let it go 
over the side and then made it fast to a ring bolt in the stem. Then he baited another line 
and left it coiled in the shade of the bow. He went back to rowing and to watching the 
long- winged black bird who was working, now, low over the water. 

As he watched the bird dipped again slanting his wings for the dive and then 
swinging them wildly and ineffectually as he followed the flying fish. The old man could 
see the slight bulge in the water that the big dolphin raised as they followed the escaping 
frsh. The dolphin were cutting through the water below the flight of the frsh and would be 
in the water, driving at speed, when the fish dropped. It is a big school of dolphin, he 
thought. They are widespread and the flying frsh have little chance. The bird has no 
chance. The flying fish are too big for him and they go too fast. 

He watched the flying fish burst out again and again and the ineffectual movements 
of the bird. That school has gotten away from me, he thought. They are moving out too 
fast and too far. But perhaps I will pick up [34] a stray and perhaps my big frsh is around 
them. My big fish must be somewhere. 

The clouds over the land now rose like mountains and the coast was only a long 
green line with the gray blue hills behind it. The water was a dark blue now, so dark that 
it was almost purple. As he looked down into it he saw the red sifting of the plankton in 
the dark water and the strange light the sun made now. He watched his lines to see them 
go straight down out of sight into the water and he was happy to see so much plankton 
because it meant frsh. The strange light the sun made in the water, now that the sun was 
higher, meant good weather and so did the shape of the clouds over the land. But the bird 
was almost out of sight now and nothing showed on the surface of the water but some 
patches of yellow, sun- bleached Sargasso weed and the purple, formalized, iridescent, 
gelatinous bladder of a Portuguese man-of-war floating dose beside the boat. It turned on 
its side and then righted itself. It floated cheerfully as a bubble with its long deadly purple 
filaments trailing a yard behind it in the water. 

"Agua mala," the man said. "You whore." 

From where he swung lightly against his oars he looked down into the water and saw 

- 12- 

The Old Man and the Sea 

the tiny fish that [35] were coloured like the trailing filaments and swam between them 
and under the small shade the bubble made as it drifted. They were immune to its poison. 
But men were not and when same of the filaments would catch on a line and rest there 
slimy and purple while the old man was working a fish, he would have welts and sores on 
his arms and hands of the sort that poison ivy or poison oak can give. But these 
poisonings from the agua mala came guickly and struck like a whiplash. 

The iridescent bubbles were beautiful. But they were the falsest thing in the sea and 
the old man loved to see the big sea turtles eating them. The turtles saw them, 
approached them from the front, then shut their eyes so they were completely carapaced 
and ate them filaments and all. The old man loved to see the turtles eat them and he 
loved to walk on them on the beach after a storm and hear them pop when he stepped on 
them with the homy soles of his feet. 

He loved green turtles and hawk- bills with their elegance and speed and their great 
value and he had a friendly contempt for the huge, stupid loggerheads, yellow in their 
armour- plating, strange in their [36] love-making, and happily eating the Portuguese 
men- of- war with their eyes shut. 

He had no mysticism about turtles although he had gone in turtle boats for many 
years. He was sorry for them all, even the great trunk backs that were as long as the skiff 
and weighed a ton. Most people are heartless about turtles because a turtle's heart will 
beat for hours after he has been cut up and butchered. But the old man thought, I have 
such a heart too and my feet and hands are like theirs. He ate the white eggs to give 
himself strength. He ate them all through May to be strong in September and October for 
the truly big fish. 

He also drank a cup of shark liver oil each day from the big drum in the shack where 
many of the fishermen kept their gear. It was there for all fishermen who wanted it. Most 
fishermen hated the taste. But it was no worse than getting up at the hours that they rose 
and it was very good against all colds and grippes and it was good for the eyes. 

Now the old man looked up and saw that the bird was circling again. 

"He's found fish," he said aloud. No flying fish broke the surface and there was no 
scattering of bait [37] fish. But as the old man watched, a small tuna rose in the air, 
turned and dropped head first into the water. The tuna shone silver in the sun and after 
he had dropped back into the water another and another rose and they were jumping in 
all directions, churning the water and leaping in long jumps after the bait. They were 
circling it and driving it. 

If they don't travel too fast I will get into them, the old man thought, and he watched 
the school working the water white and the bird now dropping and dipping into the bait 
fish that were forced to the surface in their panic. 

"The bird is a great help," the old man said. J ust then the stem line came taut under 
his foot, where he had kept a loop of the line, and he dropped his oars and felt tile weight 
of the small tuna's shivering pull as he held the line firm and commenced to haul it in. 
The shivering increased as he pulled in and he could see the blue back of the fish in the 
water and the gold of his sides before he swung him over the side and into the boat. He 

- 13 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

lay in the stem in the sun, compact and bullet shaped, his big, unintelligent eyes staring 
as he thumped his life out against the planking of the boat with the quick shivering 
strokes of his neat, fast- moving [38] tail. The old man hit him on the head for kindness 
and kicked him, his body still shuddering, under the shade of the stem. 

"Albacore," he said aloud. “He'll make a beautiful bait. He'll weigh ten pounds." 

He did not remember when he had first started to talk aloud when he was by himself. 
He had sung when he was by himself in the old days and he had sung at night sometimes 
when he was alone steering on his watch in the smacks or in the turtle boats. He had 
probably started to talk aloud, when alone, when the boy had left. But he did not 
remember. When he and the boy fished together they usually spoke only when it was 
necessary. They talked at night or when they were storm- bound by bad weather. It was 
considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at sea and the old man had always 
considered it so and respected it. But now he said his thoughts aloud many times since 
there was no one that they could annoy. 

"If the others heard me talking out loud they would think that I am crazy," he said 
aloud. "But since I am not crazy, I do not care. And the rich have radios to talk to them in 
their boats and to bring them the baseball." 

[39] Now is no time to think of baseball, he thought. Now is the time to think of only 
one thing. That which I was bom for. There might be a big one around that school, he 
thought. I picked up only a straggler from the albacore that were feeding. But they are 
working far out and fast. Everything that shows on the surface today travels very fast and 
to the north-east. Can that be the time of day? Or is it some sign of weather that I do not 

He could not see the green of the shore now but only the tops of the blue hills that 
showed white as though they were snow-capped and the clouds that looked like high 
snow mountains above them. The sea was very dark and the light made prisms in the 
water. The myriad flecks of the plankton were annulled now by the high sun and it was 
only the great deep prisms in the blue water that the old man saw now with his lines 
going straight down into the water that was a mile deep. 

The tuna, the fishermen called all the fish of that species tuna and only distinguished 
among them by their proper names when they came to sell them or to trade them for 
baits, were down again. The sun was [40] hot now and the old man felt it on the back of 
his neck and felt the sweat trickle down his back as he rowed. 

I could just drift, he thought, and sleep and put a bight of line around my toe to wake 
me. But today is eighty- five days and I should fish the day well. 

J ust then, watching his lines, he saw one of the projecting green sticks dip sharply. 

"Yes," he said. "Yes," and shipped his oars without bumping the boat. He reached out 
for the line and held it softly between the thumb and forefinger of his right hand. He felt 
no strain nor weight and he held the line lightly. Then it came again. This time it was a 
tentative pull, not solid nor heavy, and he knew exactly what it was. One hundred 
fathoms down a marlin was eating the sardines that covered the point and the shank of 

- 14 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

the hook where the hand- forged hook projected from the head of the small tuna. 

The old man held the line delicately, and softly, with his left hand, unleashed it from 
the stick. Now he could let it run through his fingers without the fish feeling any tension. 

This far out, he must be huge in this month, he thought. Eat them, fish. Eat them. 
Please eat them. 

[41] How fresh they are and you down there six hundred feet in that cold water in the 
dark. Make another turn in the dark and come back and eat them. He felt the light 
delicate pulling and then a harder pull when a sardine's head must have been more 
difficult to break from the hook. Then there was nothing. 

"Come on," the old man said aloud. "Make another turn. J ust smell them. Aren't they 
lovely? Eat them good now and then there is the tuna. Hard and cold and lovely. Don't be 
shy, fish. Eat them." 

He waited with the line between his thumb and his finger, watching it and the other 
lines at the same time for the fish might have swum up or down. Then came the same 
delicate pulling touch again. 

"He'll take it," the old man said aloud. "God help him to take it." 

He did not take it though. He was gone and the old man felt nothing. 

"He can't have gone," he said. "Christ knows he can't have gone. He's making a turn. 
Maybe he 

has been hooked before and he remembers something of it. 

[42] Then he felt the gentle touch on the line and he was happy. 

"It was only his turn," he said. "He'll take it." 

He was happy feeling the gentle pulling and then he felt something hard and 
unbelievably heavy. It was the weight of the fish and he let the line slip down, down, 
down, unrolling off the first of the two reserve coils. As it went down, slipping lightly 
through the old man's fingers, he still could feel the great weight, though the pressure of 
his thumb and finger were almost imperceptible. "What a fish," he said. "He has it 
sideways in his mouth now and he is moving off with it." 

Then he will turn and swallow it, he thought. He did not say that because he knew 
that if you said a good thing it might not happen. He knew what a huge fish this was and 
he thought of him moving away in the darkness with the tuna held crosswise in his 
mouth. At that moment he felt him stop moving but the weight was still there. Then the 
weight increased and he gave more line. He tightened the pressure of his thumb and 
finger for a moment and the weight increased and was going straight down. 

[43] "He's taken it," he said. "Now I'll let him eat it well." 

He let the line slip through his fingers while he reached down with his left hand and 
made fast the free end of the two reserve coils to the loop of the two reserve coils of the 
next line. Now he was ready. He had three forty- fathom coils of line in reserve now, as 

- 15 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

well as the coil he was using. 

"Eat it a little more/' he said. "Eat it well." 

Eat it so that the point of the hook goes into your heart and kills you, he thought. 
Come up easy and let me put the harpoon into you. All right. Are you ready? Have you 
been long enough at table? 

"Now!" he said aloud and struck hard with both hands, gained a yard of line and 
then struck again and again, swinging with each arm alternately on the cord with all the 
strength of his arms and the pivoted weight of his body. 

Nothing happened. The fish just moved away slowly and the old man could not raise 
him an inch. His line was strong and made for heavy fish and he held it against his hack 
until it was so taut that beads of water were jumping from it. Then it began to make a 
slow hissing sound in the water and he still held it, bracing [44] himself against the 
thwart and leaning back against the pull. The boat began to move slowly off toward the 

The fish moved steadily and they travelled slowly on the calm water. The other baits 
were still in the water but there was nothing to be done. 

"I wish I had the boy" the old man said aloud. "I'm being towed by a fish and I'm the 
towing bitt. I could make the line fast. But then he could break it. I must hold him all I 
can and give him line when he must have it. Thank God he is travelling and not going 

What I will do if he decides to go down, I don't know. What I'll do if he sounds and 
dies I don't know. But I'll do something. There are plenty of things I can do. 

He held the line against his back and watched its slant in the water and the skiff 
moving steadily to the north-west. 

This will kill him, the old man thought. He can't do this forever. But four hours later 
the fish was still swimming steadily out to sea, towing the skiff, and the old man was still 
braced solidly with the line across his back. 

[45] "It was noon when I hooked him," he said. "And I have never seen him." 

He had pushed his straw hat hard down on his head before he hooked the fish and it 
was cutting his forehead. He was thirsty too and he got down on his knees and, being 
careful not to jerk on the line, moved as far into the bow as he could get and reached the 
water bottle with one hand. He opened it and drank a little. Then he rested against the 
bow. He rested sitting on the un- stepped mast and sail and tried not to think but only to 

Then he looked behind him and saw that no land was visible. That makes no 
difference, he thought. I can always come in on the glow from Havana. There are two 
more hours before the sun sets and maybe he will come up before that. If he doesn't 
maybe he will come up with the moon. If he does not do that maybe he will come up with 
the sunrise. I have no cramps and I feel strong. It is he that has the hook in his mouth. 

- 16 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

But what a fish to pull like that. He must have his mouth shut tight on the wire. I wish I 
could see him. I wish I could see him only once to know what I have against me. 

The fish never changed his course nor his direction [46] all that night as far as the 
man could tell from watching the stars. It was cold after the sun went down and the old 
man's sweat dried cold on his back and his arms and his old legs. During the day he had 
taken the sack that covered the bait box and spread it in the sun to dry. After the sun 
went down he tied it around his neck so that it hung down over his back and he 
cautiously worked it down under the line that was across his shoulders now. The sack 
cushioned the line and he had found a way of leaning forward against the bow so that he 
was almost comfortable. The position actually was only somewhat less intolerable; but he 
thought of it as almost comfortable. 

I can do nothing with him and he can do nothing with me, he thought. Not as long as 
he keeps this up. 

Once he stood up and urinated over the side of the skiff and looked at the stars and 
checked his course. The line showed like a phosphorescent streak in the water straight 
out from his shoulders. They were moving more slowly now and the glow of Havana was 
not so strong, so that he knew the current must be carrying them to the eastward. If I lose 
the glare of Havana we must be going more to the eastward, he thought. For if the fish's 
course held true I must see it for many more [47] hours. I wonder how the baseball came 
out in the grand leagues today, he thought. It would be wonderful to do this with a radio. 
Then he thought, think of it always. Think of what you are doing. You must do nothing 

Then he said aloud, "I wish I had the boy. To help me and to see this." 

No one should be alone in their old age, he thought. But it is unavoidable. I must 
remember to eat the tuna before he spoils in order to keep strong. Remember, no matter 
how little you want to, that you must eat him in the morning. Remember, he said to 

During the night two porpoises came around the boat and he could hear them rolling 
and blowing. He could tell the difference between the blowing noise the male made and 
the sighing blow of the female. 

"They are good," he said. 'They play and make jokes and love one another. They are 
our brothers like the flying fish." 

Then he began to pity the great fish that he had hooked. He is wonderful and strange 
and who knows how old he is, he thought. Never have I had such a strong fish nor one 
who acted so strangely. Perhaps he is too wise to jump. He could ruin me by jumping or 
[48] by a wild rush. But perhaps he has been hooked many times before and he knows 
that this is how he should make his fight. He cannot know that it is only one man against 
him, nor that it is an old man. But what a great fish he is and what will he bring in the 
market if the flesh is good. He took the bait like a male and he pulls like a male and his 
fight has no panic in it. I wonder if he has any plans or if he is just as desperate as I am? 

He remembered the time he had hooked one of a pair of marlin. The male fish 

- 17 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

always let the female fish feed first and the hooked fish, the female, made a wild, 
panic-stricken, despairing fight that soon exhausted her, and all the time the male had 
stayed with her, crossing the line and circling with her on the surface. He had stayed so 
close that the old man was afraid he would cut the line with his tail which was sharp as a 
scythe and almost of that size and shape. When the old man had gaffed her and clubbed 
her, holding the rapier bill with its sandpaper edge and dubbing her across the top of her 
head until her colour turned to a colour almost like the backing of mirrors, and then, with 
the boy's aid, hoisted her aboard, the male fish had stayed by the side of the boat. Then, 
while the old man was clearing the lines and preparing the harpoon, [49] the male fish 
jumped high into the air beside the boat to see where the female was and then went down 
deep, his lavender wings, that were his pectoral fins, spread wide and all his wide 
lavender stripes showing. He was beautiful, the old man remembered, and he had stayed. 

That was the saddest thing I ever saw with them, the old man thought. The boy was 
sad too and we begged her pardon and butchered her promptly. 

"I wish the boy was here," he said aloud and settled himself against the rounded 
planks of the bow and felt the strength of the great fish through the line he held across his 
shoulders moving steadily toward whatever he had chosen. 

When once, through my treachery, it had been necessary to him to make a choice, 
the old man thought. 

His choice had been to stay in the deep dark water far out beyond all snares and 
traps and treacheries. My choice was to go there to find him beyond all people. Beyond all 
people in the world. Now we are joined together and have been since noon. And no one to 
help either one of us. 

Perhaps I should not have been a fisherman, he thought. But that was the thing that 
I was bom for. I must surely remember to eat the tuna after it gets light. 

[50] Some time before daylight something took one of the baits that were behind 
him. He heard the stick break and the line begin to msh out over the gunwale of the skiff. 
In the darkness he loosened his sheath knife and taking all the strain of the fish on his 
left shoulder he leaned back and cut the line against the wood of the gunwale. Then he 
cut the other line closest to him and in the dark made the loose ends of the reserve coils 
fast. He worked skillfully with the one hand and put his foot on the coils to hold them as 
he drew his knots tight. Now he had six reserve coils of line. There were two from each 
bait he had severed and the two from the bait the fish had taken and they were all 

After it is light, he thought, I will work back to the forty- fathom bait and cut it away 
too and link up the reserve coils. I will have lost two hundred fathoms of good Catalan 
cardel and the hooks and leaders. That can be replaced. But who replaces this fish if I 
hook some fish and it cuts him off? 

I don't know what that fish was that took the bait just now. It could have been a 
marlin or a broadbill or a shark. I never felt him. I had to get rid of him too fast. 

Aloud he said, "I wish I had the boy." 

- 18 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

[51] But you haven't got the boy, he thought. You have only yourself and you had 
better work back to the last line now, in the dark or not in the dark, and cut it away and 
hook up the two reserve coils. 

So he did it. It was difficult in the dark and once the fish made a surge that pulled 
him down on his face and made a cut below his eye. The blood ran down his cheek a little 
way. But it coagulated and dried before it reached his chin and he worked his way back to 
the bow and rested against the wood. He adjusted the sack and carefully worked the line 
so that it came across a new part of his shoulders and, holding it anchored with his 
shoulders, he carefully felt the pull of the fish and then felt with his hand the progress of 
the skiff through the water. 

I wonder what he made that lurch for, he thought. The wire must have slipped on the 
great hill of his back. Certainly his back cannot feel as badly as mine does. But he cannot 
pull this skiff forever, no matter how great he is. Now everything is cleared away that 
might make trouble and I have a big reserve of line; all that a man can ask. 

"Fish," he said softly, aloud, "I'll stay with you until I am dead." 

[52] He'll stay with me too, I suppose, the old man thought and he waited for it to be 
light. It was cold now in the time before daylight and he pushed against the wood to be 
warm. I can do it as long as he can, he thought. And in the first light the line extended out 
and down into the water. The boat moved steadily and when the first edge of the sun rose 
it was on the old man's right shoulder. 

"He's headed north," the old man said. The current will have set us far to the 
eastward, he thought. I wish he would turn with the current. That would show that he 
was tiring. 

When the sun had risen further the old man realized that the fish was not tiring. 
There was only one favorable sign. The slant of the line showed he was swimming at a 
lesser depth. That did not necessarily mean that he would jump. But he might. 

"God let him jump," the old man said. "I have enough line to handle him." 

Maybe if I can increase the tension just a little it will hurt him and he will jump, he 
thought. Now that it is daylight let him jump so that he'll fill the sacks along his backbone 
with air and then he cannot go deep to die. 

[53] He tried to increase the tension, but the line had been taut up to the very edge of 
the breaking point since he had hooked the fish and he felt the harshness as he leaned 
back to pull and knew he could put no more strain on it. I must not jerk it ever, he 
thought. Each jerk widens the cut the hook makes and then when he does jump he might 
throw it. Anyway I feel better with the sun and for once I do not have to look into it. 

There was yellow weed on the line but the old man knew that only made an added 
drag and he was pleased. It was the yellow Gulf weed that had made so much 
phosphorescence in the night. 

"Fish," he said, "I love you and respect you very much. But I will kill you dead before 
this day ends." 

- 19 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

Let us hope so, he thought. 

A small bird came toward the skiff from the north. He was a warbler and flying very 
low over 

the water. The old man could see that he was very tired. The bird made the stem of 
the boat and rested there. Then he flew around the old man's head and rested on the line 
where he was more comfortable. “How old are you?" the old man asked the bird. "Is this 
your first trip?" 

[54] The bird looked at him when he spoke. He was too tired even to examine the 
line and he teetered on it as his delicate feet gripped it fast. 

"It's steady/' the old man told him. "It's too steady. You shouldn't be that tired after 
a windless night. What are birds coming to?" 

The hawks, he thought that come out to sea to meet them. But he said nothing of 
this to the bird who could not understand him anyway and who would learn about the 
hawks soon enough. 

'Take a good rest, small bird," he said. "Then go in and take your chance like any 
man or bird or fish." 

It encouraged him to talk because his back had stiffened in the night and it hurt truly 

"Stay at my house if you like, bird," he said. "I am sorry I cannot hoist the sail and 
take you in with the small breeze that is rising. But I am with a friend. " 

J ust then the fish gave a sudden lurch that pulled the old man down onto the bow 
and would have pulled him overboard if he had not braced himself and given some line. 

The bird had flown up when the line jerked and the old man had not even seen him 
go. He felt the line [55] carefully with his right hand and noticed his hand was bleeding. 

"Something hurt him then," he said aloud and pulled back on the line to see if he 
could turn the fish. But when he was touching the breaking point he held steady and 
settled back against the strain of the line. 

'You're feeling it now, fish," he said. "And so, God knows, am I." 

He looked around for the bird now because he would have liked him for company. 
The bird was gone. 

You did not stay long, the man thought. But it is rougher where you are going until 
you make the shore. How did I let the fish cut me with that one quick pull he made? I 
must be getting very stupid. Or perhaps I was looking at the small bird and thinking of 
him. Now I will pay attention to my work and then I must eat the tuna so that I will not 
have a failure of strength. 

"I wish the boy were here and that I had some salt," he said aloud. 


The Old Man and the Sea 

Shifting the weight of the line to his left shoulder and kneeling carefully he washed 
his hand in the ocean and held it there, submerged, for more than a [56] minute watching 
the blood trail away and the steady movement of the water against his hand as the boat 

"He has slowed much," he said. 

The old man would have liked to keep his hand in the salt water longer but he was 
afraid of another sudden lurch by the fish and he stood up and braced himself and held 
his hand up against the sun. It was only a line bum that had cut his flesh. But it was in 
the working part of his hand. He knew he would need his hands before this was over and 
he did not like to be cut before it started. 

"Now," he said, when his hand had dried, "I must eat the small tuna. I can reach him 
with the gaff and eat him here in comfort." 

He knelt down and found the tuna under the stem with the gaff and drew it toward 
him keeping it clear of the coiled lines. Holding the line with his left shoulder again, and 
bracing on his left hand and arm, he took the tuna off the gaff hook and put the gaff back 
in place. He put one knee on the fish and cut strips of dark red meat longitudinally from 
the back of the head to the tail. They were wedge- shaped strips and he cut [ 57] them from 
next to the back bone down to the edge of the belly. When he had cut six strips he spread 
them out on the wood of the bow, wiped his knife on his trousers, and lifted the carcass of 
the bonito by the tail and dropped it overboard. 

"I don't think I can eat an entire one," he said and drew his knife across one of the 
strips. He could feel the steady hard pull of the line and his left hand was cramped. It 
drew up tight on the heavy cord and he looked at it in disgust. 

'What kind of a hand is that," he said. "Cramp then if you want. Make yourself into a 
claw. It will do you no good." 

Come on, he thought and looked down into the dark water at the slant of the line. 
Eat it now and it will strengthen the hand. It is not the hand's fault and you have been 
many hours with the fish. But you can stay with him forever. Eat the bonito now. 

He picked up a piece and put it in his mouth and chewed it slowly. It was not 

Chew it well, he thought, and get all the juices. It would not be had to eat with a little 
lime or with lemon or with salt. 

"How do you feel, hand?" he asked the cramped [58] hand that was almost as stiff as 
rigor mortis. 'I'll eat some more for you." 

He ate the other part of the piece that he had cut in two. He chewed it carefully and 
then spat out the skin. 

"How does it go, hand? Or is it too early to know?" 

He took another full piece and chewed it. 

-21 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

"It is a strong full-blooded fish/' he thought. "I was lucky to get him instead of 
dolphin. Dolphin is too sweet. This is hardly sweet at all and all the strength is still in it." 

There is no sense in being anything but practical though, he thought. I wish I had 
some salt. And I do not know whether the sun will rot or dry what is left, so I had better 
eat it all although I am not hungry. The fish is calm and steady. I will eat it all and then I 
will be ready. 

"Be patient hand," he said. "I do this for you." 

I wish I could feed the fish, he thought. He is my brother. But I must kill him and 
keep strong to do it. Slowly and conscientiously he ate all of the wedge-shaped strips of 

He straightened up, wiping his hand on his trousers. "Now," he said. 'You can let the 
cord go, hand, and I will handle him with the right arm alone until you [59] stop that 
nonsense." He put his left foot on the heavy line that the left hand had held and lay back 
against the pull against his back. 

"God help me to have the cramp go," he said. "Because I do not know what the fish is 
going to do." 

But he seems calm, he thought, and following his plan. But what is his plan, he 
thought. And what is mine? Mine I must improvise to his because of his great size. If he 
will jump I can kill him. But he stays down forever. Then I will stay down with him 

He rubbed the cramped hand against his trousers and tried to gentle the fingers. But 
it would not open. Maybe it will open with the sun, he thought. Maybe it will open when 
the strong raw tuna is digested. If I have to have it, I will open it, cost whatever it costs. 
But I do not want to open it now by force. Let it open by itself and come back of its own 
accord. After all I abused it much in the night when it was necessary to free and untie the 
various lines. 

He looked across the sea and knew how alone he was now. But he could see the 
prisms in the deep dark water and the line stretching ahead and the strange undulation 
of the calm. The clouds were building up now for the trade wind and he looked ahead and 
saw a [60] flight of wild ducks etching themselves against the sky over the water, then 
blurring, then etching again and he knew no man was ever alone on the sea. 

He thought of how some men feared being out of sight of land in a small boar and 
knew they were right in the months of sudden bad weather. But now they were in 
hurricane months and, when there are no hurricanes, the weather of hurricane months is 
the best of all the year. 

If there is a hurricane you always see the signs of it in the sky for days ahead, if you 
are at sea. They do not see it ashore because they do not know what to look for, he 
thought. The land must make a difference too, in the shape of the clouds. But we have no 
hurricane coming now. 

He looked at the sky and saw the white cumulus built like friendly piles of ice cream 

- 22 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

and high above were the thin feathers of the cirrus against the high September sky. 

"Light brisa/' he said. "Better weather for me than for you, fish." 

His left hand was still cramped, but he was unknotting it slowly. 

I hate a cramp, he thought. It is a treachery of one's [61] own body. It is humiliating 
before others to have a diarrhoea from ptomaine poisoning or to vomit from it. But a 
cramp, he thought of it as a calambre, humiliates oneself especially when one is alone. 

If the boy were here he could rub it for me and loosen it down from the forearm, he 
thought. But it will loosen up. 

Then, with his right hand he felt the difference in the pull of the line before he saw 
the slant change in the water. Then, as he leaned against the line and slapped his left 
hand hard and fast against his thigh he saw the line slanting slowly upward. 

"He's coming up," he said. "Come on hand. Please come on." 

The line rose slowly and steadily and then the surface of the ocean bulged ahead of 
the boat and the fish came out. He came out unendingly and water poured from his sides. 
He was bright in the sun and his head and back were dark purple and in the sun the 
stripes on his sides showed wide and a light lavender. His sword was as long as a baseball 
bat and tapered like a rapier and he rose his full length from the water and then 
re-entered it, smoothly, like a diver and the old [62] man saw the great scythe- blade of 
his tail go under and the line commenced to race out. 

"He is two feet longer than the skiff," the old man said. The line was going out fast 
but steadily and the frsh was not panicked. The old man was trying with both hands to 
keep the line just inside of breaking strength. He knew that if he could not slow the frsh 
with a steady pressure the frsh could take out all the line and break it. 

He is a great frsh and I must convince him, he thought. I must never let him learn his 
strength nor what he could do if he made his run. If I were him I would put in everything 
now and go until something broke. But, thank God, they are not as intelligent as we who 
kill them; although they are more noble and more able. 

The old man had seen many great frsh. He had seen many that weighed more than a 
thousand pounds and he had caught two of that size in his life, but never alone. Now 
alone, and out of sight of land, he was fast to the biggest frsh that he had ever seen and 
bigger than he had ever heard of, and his left hand was still as tight as the gripped claws 
of an eagle. 

[63] It will uncramp though, he thought. Surely it will uncramp to help my right 
hand. There are three things that are brothers: the fish and my two hands. It must 
uncramp. It is unworthy of it to be cramped. The fish had slowed again and was going at 
his usual pace. 

I wonder why he jumped, the old man thought. He jumped almost as though to show 
me how big he was. I know now, anyway, he thought. I wish I could show him what sort 
of man I am. But then he would see the cramped hand. Let him think I am more man 

-23 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

than I am and I will be so. I wish I was the fish, he thought, with everything he has 
against only my will and my intelligence. 

He settled comfortably against the wood and took his suffering as it came and the 
fish swam steadily and the boat moved slowly through the dark water. There was a small 
sea rising with the wind coming up from the east and at noon the old man's left hand was 

"Bad news for you, fish," he said and shifted the line over the sacks that covered his 

He was comfortable but suffering, although he did not admit the suffering at all. 

"I am not religious," he said. "But I will say ten Our [64] Fathers and ten Hail Marys 
that I should catch this fish, and I promise to make a pilgrimage to the Virgin of Cobre if I 
catch him. That is a promise." 

He commenced to say his prayers mechanically. Sometimes he would be so tired that 
he could not remember the prayer and then he would say them fast so that they would 
come automatically. Hail Marys are easier to say than Our Fathers, he thought. 

"Hail Mary full of Grace the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and 
blessed is the fruit of thy womb, J esus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners 
now and at the hour of our death. Amen." Then he added, "Blessed Virgin, pray for the 
death of this fish. Wonderful though he is." 

With his prayers said, and feeling much better, but suffering exactly as much, and 
perhaps a little more, he leaned against the wood of the bow and began, mechanically, to 
work the fingers of his left hand. 

The sun was hot now although the breeze was rising gently. 

"I had better re- bait that little line out over the stem," he said. "If the fish decides to 
stay another night I will need to eat again and the water is low in the bottle. I don't think 
I can get anything but a dolphin [65] here. But if I eat him fresh enough he won't be bad. 
I wish a flying frsh would come on board tonight. But I have no light to attract them. A 
flying fish is excellent to eat raw and I would not have to cut him up. I must save all my 
strength now. Christ, I did not know he was so big." 

"I'll kill him though," he said. "In all his greatness and his glory." 

Although it is unjust, he thought. But I will show him what a man can do and what a 
man endures. 

"I told the boy I was a strange old man," he said. 

"Now is when I must prove it." 

The thousand times that he had proved it meant nothing. Now he was proving it 
again. Each time was a new time and he never thought about the past when he was doing 

- 24 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

I wish he'd sleep and I could sleep and dream about the lions, he thought. Why are 
the lions the main thing that is left? Don't think, old man, he said to himself. Rest gently 
now against the wood and think of nothing. He is working. Work as little as you can. 

It was getting into the afternoon and the boat still moved slowly and steadily. But 
there was an added drag now from the easterly breeze and the old man [66] rode gently 
with the small sea and the hurt of the cord across his back came to him easily and 

Once in the afternoon the line started to rise again. But the fish only continued to 
swim at a slightly higher level. The sun was on the old man's left arm and shoulder and 
on his back. So he knew the fish had turned east of north. 

Now that he had seen him once, he could picture the fish swimming in the water 
with his purple pectoral fins set wide as wings and the great erect tail slicing through the 
dark. I wonder how much he sees at that depth, the old man thought. His eye is huge and 
a horse, with much less eye, can see in the dark. Once I could see quite well in the dark. 
Not in the absolute dark. But almost as a cat sees. 

The sun and his steady movement of his fingers had uncramped his left hand now 
completely and he began to shift more of the strain to it and he shrugged the muscles of 
his back to shift the hurt of the cord a little. 

"If you're not tired, fish, " he said aloud, "you must be very strange. " 

He felt very tired now and he knew the night would come soon and he tried to think 
of other things. He thought of the Big Leagues, to him they were the Gran [67] Ligas, and 
he knew that the Yankees of New York were playing the Tigres of Detroit. 

This is the second day now that I do not know the result of the juegos, he thought. 
But I must have confidence and I must be worthy of the great DiMaggio who does all 
things perfectly even with the pain of the bone spur in his heel. What is a bone spur? he 
asked himself. Un espuela de hueso. We do not have them. Can it be as painful as the 
spur of a fighting cock in one's heel? I do not think I could endure that or the loss of the 
eye and of both eyes and continue to fight as the fighting cocks do. Man is not much 
beside the great birds and beasts. Still I would rather be that beast down there in the 
darkness of the sea. 

"Unless sharks come," he said aloud. "If sharks come, God pity him and me." 

Do you believe the great DiMaggio would stay with a fish as long as I will stay with 
this one? he thought. I am sure he would and more since he is young and strong. Also his 
father was a fisherman. But would the bone spur hurt him too much? 

"I do not know," he said aloud. "I never had a bone spur." 

As the sun set he remembered, to give himself more [68] confidence, the time in the 
tavern at Casablanca when he had played the hand game with the great negro from 
Cienfuegos who was the strongest man on the docks. They had gone one day and one 
night with their elbows on a chalk line on the table and their forearms straight up and 
their hands gripped tight. Each one was trying to force the other's hand down onto the 

- 25 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

table. There was much betting and people went in and out of the room under the 
kerosene lights and he had looked at the arm and hand of the negro and at the negro's 
face. They changed the referees every four hours after the first eight so that the referees 
could sleep. Blood came out from under the fingernails of both his and the negro's hands 
and they looked each other in the eye and at their hands and forearms and the bettors 
went in and out of the room and sat on high chairs against the wall and watched. The 
walls were painted bright blue and were of wood and the lamps threw their shadows 
against them. The negro's shadow was huge and it moved on the wall as the breeze 
moved the lamps. 

The odds would change back and forth all night and they fed the negro rum and 
lighted cigarettes for him. 

Then the negro, after the rum, would try for a tremendous [69] effort and once he 
had the old man, who was not an old man then but was Santiago El Campeon, nearly 
three inches off balance. But the old man had raised his hand up to dead even again. He 
was sure then that he had the negro, who was a fine man and a great athlete, beaten. And 
at daylight when the bettors were asking that it be called a draw and the referee was 
shaking his head, he had unleashed his effort and forced the hand of the negro down and 
down until it rested on the wood. The match had started on a Sunday morning and ended 
on a Monday morning. Many of the bettors had asked for a draw because they had to go 
to work on the docks loading sacks of sugar or at the Havana Coal Company. Otherwise 
everyone would have wanted it to go to a finish. But he had finished it anyway and before 
anyone had to go to work. 

For a long time after that everyone had called him The Champion and there had 
been a return match in the spring. But not much money was bet and he had won it guite 
easily since he had broken the confidence of the negro from Qenfuegos in the first match. 
After that he had a few matches and then no more. He decided that he could beat anyone 
if he wanted to badly enough and he decided that it was bad for his right [70] hand for 
fishing. He had tried a few practice matches with his left hand. But his left hand had 
always been a traitor and would not do what he called on it to do and he did not trust it. 

The sun will bake it out well now, he thought. It should not cramp on me again 
unless it gets too cold in the night. I wonder what this night will bring. 

An airplane passed overhead on its course to Miami and he watched its shadow 
scaring up the schools of flying fish. 

"With so much flying fish there should be dolphin," he said, and leaned back on the 
line to see if it was possible to gain any on his frsh. But he could not and it stayed at the 
hardness and water-drop shivering that preceded breaking. The boat moved ahead slowly 
and he watched the airplane until he could no longer see it. 

It must be very strange in an airplane, he thought. I wonder what the sea looks like 
from that height? They should be able to see the fish well if they do not fly too high. I 
would like to fly very slowly at two hundred fathoms high and see the frsh from above. In 
the turtle boats I was in the cross-trees of the mast-head and even at that height I saw 
much. The dolphin look greener from there and you can see their stripes and their purple 

- 26 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

[71] spots and you can see all of the school as they swim. Why is it that all the fast- moving 
fish of the dark current have purple backs and usually purple stripes or spots? The 
dolphin looks green of course because he is really golden. But when he comes to feed, 
truly hungry, purple stripes show on his sides as on a marlin. Can it be anger, or the 
greater speed he makes that brings them out? 

J ust before it was dark, as they passed a great island of Sargasso weed that heaved 
and swung in the light sea as though the ocean were making love with something under a 
yellow blanket, his small line was taken by a dolphin. He saw it first when it jumped in 
the air, true gold in the last of the sun and bending and flapping wildly in the air. It 
jumped again and again in the acrobatics of its fear and he worked his way back to the 
stem and crouching and holding the big line with his right hand and arm, he pulled the 
dolphin in with his left hand, stepping on the gained line each time with his bare left foot. 
When the fish was at the stem, plunging and cutting from side to side in desperation, the 
old man leaned over the stem and lifted the burnished gold fish with its purple spots over 
the stem. Its jaws were working convulsively in quick bites against [72] the hook and it 
pounded the bottom of the skiff with its long flat body, its tail and its head until he 
clubbed it across the shining golden head until it shivered and was still. 

The old man unhooked the fish, re- baited the line with another sardine and tossed it 
over. Then he worked his way slowly back to the bow. He washed his left hand and wiped 
it on his trousers. Then he shifted the heavy line from his right hand to his left and 
washed his right hand in the sea while he watched the sun go into the ocean and the slant 
of the big cord. 

"He hasn't changed at all," he said. But watching the movement of the water against 
his hand he noted that it was perceptibly slower. 

"I'll lash the two oars together across the stem and that will slow him in the night," 
he said. "He's good for the night and so am I." 

It would be better to gut the dolphin a little later to save the blood in the meat, he 
thought. I can do that a little later and lash the oars to make a drag at the same time. I 
had better keep the fish quiet now and not disturb him too much at sunset. The setting of 
the sun is a difficult time for all fish. He let his hand dry in the air then grasped the line 
[73] with it and eased himself as much as he could and allowed himself to be pulled 
forward against the wood so that the boat took the strain as much, or more, than he did. 

I'm learning how to do it, he thought. This part of it anyway. Then too, remember he 
hasn't eaten since he took the bait and he is huge and needs much food. I have eaten the 
whole bonito. Tomorrow I will eat the dolphin. He called it dorado. Perhaps I should eat 
some of it when I clean it. It will be harder to eat than the bonito. But, then, nothing is 

"How do you feel, fish?" he asked aloud. "I feel good and my left hand is better and I 
have food for a night and a day. Pull the boat, fish." 

He did not truly feel good because the pain from the cord across his back had almost 
passed pain and gone into a dullness that he mistrusted. But I have had worse things 
than that, he thought. My hand is only cut a little and the cramp is gone from the other. 

- 27 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

My legs are all right. Also now I have gained on him in the question of sustenance. 

It was dark now as it becomes dark quickly after the sun sets in September. He lay 
against the worn wood of the bow and rested all that he could. The first stars [74] were 
out. He did not know the name of Rigel but he saw it and knew soon they would all be out 
and he would have all his distant friends. 

"The fish is my friend too/' he said aloud. "I have never seen or heard of such a fish. 
But I must kill him. I am glad we do not have to try to kill the stars." 

Imagine if each day a man must try to kill the moon, he thought. The moon runs 
away. But imagine if a man each day should have to try to kill the sun? We were bom 
lucky, he thought. 

Then he was sorry for the great fish that had nothing to eat and his determination to 
kill him never relaxed in his sorrow for him. How many people will he feed, he thought. 
But are they worthy to eat him? No, of course not. There is no one worthy of eating him 
from the manner of his behaviour and his great dignity. 

I do not understand these things, he thought. But it is good that we do not have to 
try to kill the sun or the moon or the stars. It is enough to live on the sea and kill our true 

Now, he thought, I must think about the drag. It has its perils and its merits. I may 
lose so much line that I will lose him, if he makes his effort and the drag [75] made by the 
oars is in place and the boat loses all her lightness. Her lightness prolongs both our 
suffering but it is my safety since he has great speed that he has never yet employed. No 
matter what passes I must gut the dolphin so he does not spoil and eat some of him to be 

Now I will rest an hour more and feel that he is solid and steady before I move back 
to the stem to do the work and make the decision. In the meantime I can see how he acts 
and if he shows any changes. The oars are a good trick; but it has reached the time to play 
for safety. He is much fish still and I saw that the hook was in the comer of his mouth 
and he has kept his mouth tight shut. The punishment of the hook is nothing. The 
punishment of hunger, and that he is against something that he does not comprehend, is 
everything. Rest now, old man, and let him work until your next duty comes. 

He rested for what he believed to be two hours. The moon did not rise now until late 
and he had no way of judging the time. Nor was he really resting except comparatively. 
He was still bearing the pull of the fish across his shoulders but he placed his left hand on 
the [76] gunwale of the bow and confided more and more of the resistance to the fish to 
the skiff itself. 

How simple it would be if I could make the line fast, he thought. But with one small 
lurch he could break it. I must cushion the pull of the line with my body and at all times 
be ready to give line with both hands. 

"But you have not slept yet, old man," he said aloud. "It is half a day and a night and 
now another day and you have not slept. You must devise a way so that you sleep a little if 

- 28 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

he is quiet and steady. If you do not sleep you might become unclear in the head." 

I'm clear enough in the head, he thought. Too clear. I am as clear as the stars that are 
my brothers. Still I must sleep. They sleep and the moon and the sun sleep and even the 
ocean sleeps sometimes on certain days when there is no current and a flat calm. 

But remember to sleep, he thought. Make yourself do it and devise some simple and 
sure way about the lines. Now go back and prepare the dolphin. It is too dangerous to rig 
the oars as a drag if you must sleep. 

I could go without sleeping, he told himself. But it would be too dangerous. 

[77] He started to work his way back to the stem on his hands and knees, being 
careful not to jerk against the fish. He may be half asleep himself, he thought. But I do 
not want him to rest. He must pull until he dies. 

Back in the stem he turned so that his left hand held the strain of the line across his 
shoulders and drew his knife from its sheath with his right hand. The stars were bright 
now and he saw the dolphin clearly and he pushed the blade of his knife into his head 
and drew him out from under the stem. He put one of his feet on the fish and slit him 
quickly from the vent up to the tip of his lower jaw. Then he put his knife down and 
gutted him with his right hand, scooping him clean and pulling the gills clear. 

He felt the maw heavy and slippery in his hands and he slit it open. There were two 
flying fish inside. They were fresh and hard and he laid them side by side and dropped 
the guts and the gills over the stem. They sank leaving a trail of phosphorescence in the 
water. The dolphin was cold and a leprous gray- white now in the starlight and the old 
man skinned one side of him while he held his right foot on the fish's head. Then he 
turned him over and skinned the other side and cut each side off from the head down to 
the tail. 

[78] He slid the carcass overboard and looked to see if there was any swirl in the 
water. But there was only the light of its slow descent. He turned then and placed the two 
flying fish inside the two fillets of fish and putting his knife back in its sheath, he worked 
his way slowly back to the bow. His back was bent with the weight of the line across it and 
he carried the fish in his right hand. 

Back in the bow he laid the two fillets of fish out on the wood with the flying fish 
beside them. After that he settled the line across his shoulders in a new place and held it 
again with his left hand resting on the gunwale. Then he leaned over the side and washed 
the flying fish in the water, noting the speed of the water against his hand. His hand was 
phosphorescent from skinning the fish and he watched the flow of the water against it. 
The flow was less strong and as he rubbed the side of his hand against the planking of the 
skiff, particles of phosphoms floated off and drifted slowly astern. 

"He is tiring or he is resting," the old man said. "Now let me get through the eating of 
this dolphin and get some rest and a little sleep." 

Under the stars and with the night colder all the [79] time he ate half of one of the 
dolphin fillets and one of the flying fish, gutted and with its head cut off. 

- 29 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

"What an excellent fish dolphin is to eat cooked/' he said. "And what a miserable fish 
raw. I will never go in a boat again without salt or limes." 

If I had brains I would have splashed water on the bow all day and drying, it would 
have made salt, he thought. But then I did not hook the dolphin until almost sunset. Still 
it was a lack of preparation. But I have chewed it all well and I am not nauseated. 

The sky was clouding over to the east and one after another the stars he knew were 
gone. It looked now as though he were moving into a great canyon of clouds and the wind 
had dropped. 

"There will be bad weather in three or four days," he said. "But not tonight and not 
tomorrow. Rig now to get some sleep, old man, while the fish is calm and steady." 

He held the line tight in his right hand and then pushed his thigh against his right 
hand as he leaned all his weight against the wood of the bow. Then he passed the line a 
little lower on his shoulders and braced his left hand on it. 

My right hand can hold it as long as it is braced, he [80] thought If it relaxes in sleep 
my left hand will wake me as the line goes out. It is hard on the right hand. But he is used 
to punishment Even if I sleep twenty minutes or a half an hour it is good. He lay forward 
cramping himself against the line with all of his body, putting all his weight onto his right 
band, and he was asleep. 

He did not dream of the lions but instead of a vast school of porpoises that stretched 
for eight or ten miles and it was in the time of their mating and they would leap high into 
the air and return into the same hole they had made in the water when they leaped. 

Then he dreamed that he was in the village on his bed and there was a norther and 
he was very cold and his right arm was asleep because his head had rested on it instead of 
a pillow. 

After that he began to dream of the long yellow beach and he saw the first of the 
lions come down onto it in the early dark and then the other lions came and he rested his 
chin on the wood of the bows where the ship lay anchored with the evening off-shore 
breeze and he waited to see if there would be more lions and he was happy. 

The moon had been up for a long time but he slept [81] on and the fish pulled on 
steadily and the boat moved into the tunnel of clouds. 

He woke with the j erk of his right fist coming up against his face and the line burning 
out through his right hand. He had no feeling of his left hand but he braked all he could 
with his right and the line rushed out. Finally his left hand found the line and he leaned 
back against the line and now it burned his back and his left hand, and his left hand was 
taking all the strain and cutting badly. He looked back at the coils of line and they were 
feeding smoothly. J ust then the fish jumped making a great bursting of the ocean and 
then a heavy fall. Then he jumped again and again and the boat was going fast although 
line was still racing out and the old man was raising the strain to breaking point and 
raising it to breaking point again and again. He had been pulled down tight onto the bow 
and his face was in the cut slice of dolphin and he could not move. 

- 30 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

This is what we waited for, he thought. So now let us take it. Make him pay for the 
line, he thought. Make him pay for it. 

He could not see the fish's jumps but only heard the [82] breaking of the ocean and 
the heavy splash as he fell. The speed of the line was cutting his hands badly but he had 
always known this would happen and he tried to keep the cutting across the calloused 
parts and not let the line slip into the palm nor cut the fingers. 

If the boy was here he would wet the coils of line, he thought. Yes. If the boy were 
here. If the boy were here. 

The line went out and out and out but it was slowing now and he was making the fish 
earn each inch of it. Now he got his head up from the wood and out of the slice of fish 
that his cheek had crushed. Then he was on his knees and then he rose slowly to his feet. 
He was ceding line but more slowly all he time. He worked back to where he could feel 
with his foot the coils of line that he could not see. There was plenty of line still and now 
the fish had to pull the friction of all that new line through the water. 

Yes, he thought. And now he has jumped more than a dozen times and filled the 
sacks along his back with air and he cannot go down deep to die where I cannot bring 
him up. He will start circling soon and then I must work on him. I wonder what started 
him so suddenly? Could it have been hunger that made him desperate, [83] or was he 
frightened by something in the night? Maybe he suddenly felt fear. But he was such a 
calm, strong fish and he seemed so fearless and so confident. It is strange. 

'You better be fearless and confident yourself, old man," he said. 'You're holding 
him again but you cannot get line. But soon he has to circle." 

The old man held him with his left hand and his shoulders now and stooped down 
and scooped up water in his right hand to get the crushed dolphin flesh off of his face. He 
was afraid that it might nauseate him and he would vomit and lose his strength. When 
his face was cleaned he washed his right hand in the water over the side and then let it 
stay in the salt water while he watched the first light come before the sunrise. He's 
headed almost east, he thought. That means he is tired and going with the current. Soon 
he will have to circle. Then our true work begins. 

After he judged that his right hand had been in the water long enough he took it out 
and looked at it. 

"It is not bad," he said. "And pain does not matter to a man." 

He took hold of the line carefully so that it did not frt into any of the fresh line cuts 
and shifted his weight [84] so that he could put his left hand into the sea on the other 
side of the skiff. 

'You did not do so badly for something worthless," he said to his left hand. "But 
there was a moment when I could not find you." 

Why was I not bom with two good hands? he thought. Perhaps it was my fault in not 
training that one properly. But God knows he has had enough chances to learn. He did 
not do so badly in the night, though, and he has only cramped once. If he cramps again 

-31 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

let the line cut him off. 

When he thought that he knew that he was not being clear-headed and he thought he 
should chew some more of the dolphin. But I can't, he told himself. It is better to be 
light-headed than to lose your strength from nausea. And I know I cannot keep it if I eat 
it since my face was in it. I will keep it for an emergency until it goes bad. But it is too late 
to try for strength now through nourishment. You're stupid, he told himself. Eat the other 
flying fish. 

It was there, cleaned and ready, and he picked it up with his left hand and ate it 
chewing the bones carefully and eating all of it down to the tail. 

It has more nourishment than almost any fish, he [85] thought. At least the kind of 
strength that I need. Now I have done what I can, he thought. Let him begin to circle and 
let the fight come. 

The sun was rising for the third time since he had put to sea when the fish started to 

He could not see by the slant of the line that the fish was circling. It was too early for 
that. He just felt a faint slackening of the pressure of the line and he commenced to pull 
on it gently with his right hand. It tightened, as always, but just when he reached the 
point where it would break, line began to come in. He slipped his shoulders and head 
from under the line and began to pull in line steadily and gently. He used both of his 
hands in a swinging motion and tried to do the pulling as much as he could with his body 
and his legs. His old legs and shoulders pivoted with the swinging of the pulling. 

"It is a very big circle," he said. "But he is circling." Then the line would not come in 
any more and he held it until he saw the drops jumping from it in the sun. Then it started 
out and the old man knelt down and let it go grudgingly back into the dark water. 

"He is making the far part of his circle now," he said. I must hold all I can, he 
thought. The strain will [86] shorten his circle each time. Perhaps in an hour I will see 
him. Now I must convince him and then I must kill him. 

But the fish kept on circling slowly and the old man was wet with sweat and tired 
deep into his bones two hours later. But the circles were much shorter now and from the 
way the line slanted he could tell the frsh had risen steadily while he swam. 

For an hour the old man had been seeing black spots before his eyes and the sweat 
salted his eyes and salted the cut over his eye and on his forehead. He was not afraid of 
the black spots. They were normal at the tension that he was pulling on the line. Twice, 
though, he had felt faint and dizzy and that had worried him. 

"I could not fail myself and die on a frsh like this," he said. "Now that I have him 
coming so beautifully, God help me endure. I'll say a hundred Our Fathers and a hundred 
Hail Marys. But I cannot say them now. 

Consider them said, he thought. I'll say them later. Just then he felt a sudden 
banging and jerking on the line he held with his two hands. It was sharp and hard- feeling 
and heavy. 

- 32 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

He is hitting the wire leader with his spear, he [87] thought. That was bound to come. 
He had to do that. It may make him jump though and I would rather he stayed circling 
now. The jumps were necessary for him to take air. But after that each one can widen the 
opening of the hook wound and he can throw the hook. 

“Don't jump, fish," he said. "Don't jump." 

The fish hit the wire several times more and each time he shook his head the old 
man gave up a little line. 

I must hold his pain where it is, he thought. Mine does not matter. I can control 
mine. But his pain could drive him mad. 

After a while the fish stopped beating at the wire and started circling slowly again. 
The old man was gaining line steadily now. But he felt faint again. He lifted some sea 
water with his left hand and put it on his head. Then he put more on and rubbed the back 
of his neck. 

"I have no cramps," he said. "He'll be up soon and I can last. You have to last. Don't 
even speak of it." 

He kneeled against the bow and, for a moment, slipped the line over his back again. 
I'll rest now while he goes out on the circle and then stand up and work on him when he 
comes in, he decided. 

[88] It was a great temptation to rest in the bow and let the fish make one circle by 
himself without recovering any line. But when the strain showed the fish had turned to 
come toward the boat, the old man rose to his feet and started the pivoting and the 
weaving pulling that brought in all the line he gained. 

I'm tireder than I have ever been, he thought, and now the trade wind is rising. But 
that will be good to take him in with. I need that badly. 

"I'll rest on the next turn as he goes out," he said. "I feel much better. Then in two or 
three turns more I will have him." 

His straw hat was far on the back of his head and he sank down into the bow with the 
pull of the line as he felt the frsh turn. 

You work now, fish, he thought. I'll take you at the turn. 

The sea had risen considerably. But it was a fair-weather breeze and he had to have it 
to get home. 

"I'll just steer south and west," he said. "A man is never lost at sea and it is a long 

It was on the third turn that he saw the frsh first. 

He saw him first as a dark shadow that took so long [89] to pass under the boat that 
he could not believe its length. 

- 33 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

"No/' he said. "He can't be that big." 

But he was that big and at the end of this circle he came to the surface only thirty 
yards away and the man saw his tail out of water. It was higher than a big scythe blade 
and a very pale lavender above the dark blue water. It raked back and as the fish swam 
just below the surface the old man could see his huge bulk and the purple stripes that 
banded him. His dorsal fin was down and his huge pectorals were spread wide. 

On this circle the old man could see the fish's eye and the two gray sucking frsh that 
swain around him. Sometimes they attached themselves to him. Sometimes they darted 
off. Sometimes they would swim easily in his shadow. They were each over three feet long 
and when they swam fast they lashed their whole bodies like eels. 

The old man was sweating now but from something else besides the sun. On each 
calm placid turn the frsh made he was gaining line and he was sure that in two turns 
more he would have a chance to get the harpoon in. 

[90] But I must get him close, close, close, he thought. I mustn't try for the head. I 
must get the heart. 

"Be calm and strong, old man," he said. 

On the next circle the fish's beck was out but he was a little too far from the boat. On 
the next circle he was still too far away but he was higher out of water and the old man 
was sure that by gaining some more line he could have him alongside. 

He had rigged his harpoon long before and its coil of light rope was in a round basket 
and the end was made fast to the bitt in the bow. 

The fish was coming in on his circle now calm and beautiful looking and only his 
great tail moving. The old man pulled on him all that he could to bring him closer. For 
just a moment the fish turned a little on his side. Then he straightened himself and began 
another circle. 

"I moved him," the old man said. "I moved him then." 

He felt faint again now but he held on the great fish all the strain that he could. I 
moved him, he thought. Maybe this time I can get him over. Pull, hands, he thought. 
Hold up, legs. Last for me, head. Last for me. You never went. This time I'll pull him over. 

[91] But when he put all of his effort on, starting it well out before the fish came 
alongside and pulling with all his strength, the fish pulled part way over and then righted 
himself and swam away. 

"Fish," the old man said. "Fish, you are going to have to die anyway. Do you have to 
kill me too?" 

That way nothing is accomplished, he thought. His mouth was too dry to speak but 
he could not reach for the water now. I must get him alongside this time, he thought. I 
am not good for many more turns. Yes you are, he told himself. You're good for ever. 

- 34 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

On the next turn, he nearly had him. But again the fish righted himself and swam 
slowly away. 

You are killing me, fish, the old man thought. But you have a right to. Never have I 
seen a greater, or more beautiful, or a calmer or more noble thing than you, brother. 
Come on and kill me. I do not care who kills who. 

Now you are getting confused in the head, he thought. You must keep your head 
clear. Keep your head clear and know how to suffer like a man. Or a fish, he thought. 

"Clear up, head," he said in a voice he could hardly hear. "Clear up." 

[92] Twice more it was the same on the turns. I do not know, the old man thought. 
He had been on the point of feeling himself go each time. I do not know. But I will try it 
once more. He tried it once more and he felt himself going when he turned the fish. The 
frsh righted himself and swam off again slowly with the great tail weaving in the air. I'll 
try it again, the old man promised, although his hands were mushy now and he could 
only see well in flashes. He tried it again and it was the same. So he thought, and he felt 
himself going before he started; I will try it once again. 

He took all his pain and what was left of his strength and his long gone pride and he 
put it against the fish's agony and the fish came over onto his side and swam gently on his 
side, his bill almost touching the planking of the skiff and started to pass the boat, long, 
deep, wide, silver and barred with purple and interminable in the water. 

The old man dropped the line and put his foot on it and lifted the harpoon as high as 
he could and drove it down with all his strength, and more strength he had [93] just 
summoned, into the fish's side just behind the great chest fin that rose high in the air to 
the altitude of the man's chest. He felt the iron go in and he leaned on it and drove it 
further and then pushed all his weight after it. 

Then the fish came alive, with his death in him, and rose high out of the water 
showing all his great length and width and all his power and his beauty. He seemed to 
hang in the air above the old man in the skiff. Then he fell into the water with a crash that 
sent spray over the old man and over all of the skiff. 

The old man felt faint and sick and he could not see well. But he cleared the harpoon 
line and let it run slowly through his raw hands and, when he could see, he saw the fish 
was on his back with his silver belly up. The shaft of the harpoon was projecting at an 
angle from the fish's shoulder and the sea was discolouring with the red of the blood from 
his heart. First it was dark as a shoal in the blue water that was more than a mile deep. 
Then it spread like a cloud. The fish was silvery and still and floated with the waves. 

The old man looked carefully in the glimpse of vision that he had. Then he took two 
turns of the harpoon [94] line around the bitt in the bow and hid his head on his hands. 

"Keep my head dear," he said against the wood of the bow. "I am a tired old man. But 
I have killed this fish which is my brother and now I must do the slave work." 

Now I must prepare the nooses and the rope to lash him alongside, he thought. Even 
if we were two and swamped her to load him and bailed her out, this skiff would never 

- 35 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

hold him. I must prepare everything, then bring him in and lash him well and step the 
mast and set sail for home. 

He started to pull the fish in to have him alongside so that he could pass a line 
through his gills and out his mouth and make his head fast alongside the bow. I want to 
see him, he thought, and to touch and to feel him. He is my fortune, he thought. But that 
is not why I wish to feel him. I think I felt his heart, he thought. When I pushed on the 
harpoon shaft the second time. Bring him in now and make him fast and get the noose 
around his tail and another around his middle to bind him to the skiff. 

"Get to work, old man," he said. He took a very [95] small drink of the water. "There 
is very much slave work to be done now that the fight is over." 

He looked up at the sky and then out to his fish. He looked at the sun carefully. It is 
not much more than noon, he thought. And the trade wind is rising. The lines all mean 
nothing now. The boy and I will splice them when we are home. 

"Come on, fish," he said. But the fish did not come. 

Instead he lay there wallowing now in the seas and the old man pulled the skiff upon 
to him. 

When he was even with him and had the fish's head against the bow he could not 
believe his size. But he untied the harpoon rope from the bitt, passed it through the fish's 
gills and out his jaws, made a turn around his sword then passed the rope through the 
other gill, made another turn around the bill and knotted the double rope and made it 
fast to the bitt in the bow. He cut the rope then and went astern to noose the tail. The fish 
had turned silver from his original purple and silver, and the stripes showed the same 
pale violet colour as his tail. They were wider than a man's hand with his fingers spread 
and the fish's eye looked as detached as the mirrors in a periscope or as a saint in a 

[96] "It was the only way to kill him," the old man said. He was feeling better since 
the water and he knew he would not go away and his head was clear. He's over fifteen 
hundred pounds the way he is, he thought. Maybe much more. If he dresses out 
two- thirds of that at thirty cents a pound? 

"I need a pencil for that," he said. "My head is not that clear. But I think the great 
DiMaggio would be proud of me today. I had no bone spurs. But the hands and the back 
hurt truly." I wonder what a bone spur is, he thought. Maybe we have them without 
knowing of it. 

He made the fish fast to bow and stem and to the middle thwart. He was so big it 
was like lashing a much bigger skiff alongside. He cut a piece of line and tied the fish's 
lower jaw against his bill so his mouth would not open and they would sail as cleanly as 
possible. Then he stepped the mast and, with the stick that was his gaff and with his 
boom rigged, the patched sail drew, the boat began to move, and half lying in the stem he 
sailed south-west. 

He did not need a compass to tell him where southwest was. He only needed the feel 

- 36 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

of the trade wind and the drawing of the sail. I better put a small line [97] out with a 
spoon on it and try and get something to eat and drink for the moisture. But he could not 
find a spoon and his sardines were rotten. So he hooked a patch of yellow Gulf weed with 
the gaff as they passed and shook it so that the small shrimps that were in it fell onto the 
planking of the skiff. There were more than a dozen of them and they jumped and kicked 
like sand fleas. The old man pinched their heads off with his thumb and forefinger and 
ate them chewing up the shells and the tails. They were very tiny but he knew they were 
nourishing and they tasted good. 

The old man still had two drinks of water in the bottle and he used half of one after 
he had eaten the shrimps. The skiff was sailing well considering the handicaps and he 
steered with the tiller under his arm. He could see the fish and he had only to look at his 
hands and feel his back against the stem to know that this had truly happened and was 
not a dream. At one time when he was feeling so badly toward the end, he had thought 
perhaps it was a dream. Then when he had seen the fish come out of the water and hang 
motionless in the sky before he fell, he was sure there was some great strangeness and he 
could not believe it. 

[98] Then he could not see well, although now he saw as well as ever. Now he knew 
there was the fish and his hands and back were no dream. The hands cure quickly, he 
thought. I bled them clean and the salt water will heal them. The dark water of the tme 
gulf is the greatest healer that there is. All I must do is keep the head clear. The hands 
have done their work and we sail well. With his mouth shut and his tail straight up and 
down we sail like brothers. Then his head started to become a little unclear and he 
thought, is he bringing me in or am I bringing him in? If I were towing him behind there 
would be no question. Nor if the fish were in the skiff, with all dignity gone, there would 
be no question either. But they were sailing together lashed side by side and the old man 
thought, let him bring me in if it pleases him. I am only better than him through trickery 
and he meant me no harm. 

They sailed well and the old man soaked his hands in the salt water and tried to keep 
his head clear. There were high cumulus clouds and enough cirrus above them so that the 
old man knew the breeze would last all night. The old man looked at the fish constantly 
[99] to make sure it was true. It was an hour before the first shark hit him. 

The shark was not an accident. He had come up from deep down in the water as the 
dark cloud of blood had settled and dispersed in the mile deep sea. He had come up so 
fast and absolutely without caution that he broke the surface of the blue water and was in 
the sun. Then he fell back into the sea and picked up the scent and started swimming on 
the course the skiff and the fish had taken. 

Sometimes he lost the scent. But he would pick it up again, or have just a trace of it, 
and he swam fast and hard on the course. He was a very big Make shark built to swim as 
fast as the fastest fish in the sea and everything about him was beautiful except his jaws. 
His back was as blue as a sword fish's and his belly was silver and his hide was smooth 
and handsome. He was built as a sword fish except for his huge jaws which were tight 
shut now as he swam fast, just under the surface with his high dorsal fin knifing through 
the water without wavering. Inside the closed double lip of his j aws all of his eight rows of 
teeth were slanted inwards. They were not the ordinary pyramid- shaped teeth of most 

- 37 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

sharks. They were shaped like a man's [100] fingers when they are crisped like claws. 
They were nearly as long as the fingers of the old man and they had razor- sharp cutting 
edges on both sides. This was a fish built to feed on all the fishes in the sea, that were so 
fast and strong and well armed that they had no other enemy. Now he speeded up as he 
smelled the fresher scent and his blue dorsal fin cut the water. 

When the old man saw him coming he knew that this was a shark that had no fear at 
all and would do exactly what he wished. He prepared the harpoon and made the rope 
fast while he watched the shark come on. The rope was short as it lacked what he had cut 
away to lash the fish. 

The old man's head was clear and good now and he was full of resolution but he had 
little hope. It was too good to last, he thought. He took one look at the great fish as he 
watched the shark close in. It might as well have been a dream, he thought. I cannot keep 
him from hitting me but maybe I can get him. Dentuso, he thought. Bad luck to your 

The shark closed fast astern and when he hit the fish the old man saw his mouth 
open and his strange eyes and the clicking chop of the teeth as he drove forward in the 
meat just above the tail. The shark's head [ 10 1] was out of water and his back was coming 
out and the old man could hear the noise of skin and flesh ripping on the big fish when he 
rammed the harpoon down onto the shark's head at a spot where the line between his 
eyes intersected with the line that ran straight back from his nose. There were no such 
lines. There was only the heavy sharp blue head and the big eyes and the clicking, 
thrusting all- swallowing jaws. But that was the location of the brain and the old man hit 
it. He hit it with his blood mushed hands driving a good harpoon with all his strength. He 
hit it without hope but with resolution and complete malignancy. 

The shark swung over and the old man saw his eye was not alive and then he swung 
over once again, wrapping himself in two loops of the rope. The old man knew that he 
was dead but the shark would not accept it. Then, on his back, with his tail lashing and 
his jaws clicking, the shark plowed over the water as a speedboat does. The water was 
white where his tail beat it and three-quarters of his body was clear above the water when 
the rope came taut, shivered, and then snapped. The shark lay quietly for a little while on 
the surface and the old man watched him. Then he went down very slowly. 

[ 102] "He took about forty pounds," the old man said aloud. He took my harpoon too 
and all the rope, he thought, and now my fish bleeds again and there will be others. He 
did not like to look at the fish anymore since he had been mutilated. When the fish had 
been hit it was as though he himself were hit. But I killed the shark that hit my fish, he 
thought. And he was the biggest dentuso that I have ever seen. And God knows that I 
have seen big ones. It was too good to last, he thought. I wish it had been a dream now 
and that I had never hooked the fish and was alone in bed on the newspapers. 

"But man is not made for defeat," he said. "A man can be destroyed but not 
defeated." I am sorry that I killed the fish though, he thought. Now the bad time is 
coming and I do not even have the harpoon. The dentuso is cruel and able and strong and 
intelligent. But I was more intelligent than he was. Perhaps not, he thought. Perhaps I 
was only better armed. 

- 38 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

"Don't think, old man," he said aloud. "Sail on this course and take it when it comes. 

But I must think, he thought. Because it is all I have left. That and baseball. I wonder 
how the great [ 103] DiMaggio would have liked the way I hit him in the brain? It was no 
great thing, he thought. Any man could do it. But do you think my hands were as great a 
handicap as the bone spurs? I cannot know. I never had anything wrong with my heel 
except the time the sting ray stung it when I stepped on him when swimming and 
paralyzed the lower leg and made the unbearable pain. 

'Think about something cheerful, old man," he said. "Every minute now you are 
closer to home. You sail lighter for the loss of forty pounds." 

He knew quite well the pattern of what could happen when he reached the inner part 
of the current. But there was nothing to be done now. 

'Yes there is," he said aloud. "I can lash my knife to the butt of one of the oars." 

So he did that with the tiller under his arm and the sheet of the sail under his foot. 

"Now," he said. "I am still an old man. But I am not unarmed." 

The breeze was fresh now and he sailed on well. He watched only the forward part of 
the fish and some of his hope returned. 

It is silly not to hope, he thought. Besides I believe [ 104] it is a sin. Do not think 
about sin, he thought. There are enough problems now without sin. Also I have no 
understanding of it. 

I have no understanding of it and I am not sure that I believe in it. Perhaps it was a 
sin to kill the fish. I suppose it was even though I did it to keep me alive and feed many 
people. But then everything is a sin. Do not think about sin. It is much too late for that 
and there are people who are paid to do it. Let them think about it. You were bom to be a 
fisherman as the fish was bom to be a fish. San Pedro was a fisherman as was the father 
of the great DiMaggio. 

But he liked to think about all things that he was involved in and since there was 
nothing to read and he did not have a radio, he thought much and he kept on thinking 
about sin. You did not kill the fish only to keep alive and to sell for food, he thought. You 
killed him for pride and because you are a fisherman. You loved him when he was alive 
and you loved him after. If you love him, it is not a sin to kill him. Or is it more? 

'You think too much, old man," he said aloud. 

But you enjoyed killing the dentuso, he thought. He lives on the live fish as you do. 
He is not a scavenger [ 105] nor just a moving appetite as some sharks are. He is beautiful 
and noble and knows no fear of anything. 

"I killed him in self-defense," the old man said aloud. "And I killed him well." 

Besides, he thought, eveiything kills everything else in some way. Fishing kills me 
exactly as it keeps me alive. The boy keeps me alive, he thought. I must not deceive 

- 39 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

myself too much. 

He leaned over the side and pulled loose a piece of the meat of the fish where the 
shark had cut him. He chewed it and noted its quality and its good taste. It was firm and 
juicy, like meat, but it was not red. There was no stringiness in it and he knew that it 
would bring the highest price In the market. But there was no way to keep its scent out of 
the water and the old man knew that a very had time was coming. 

The breeze was steady. It had backed a little further into the north-east and he knew 
that meant that it would not fall off. The old man looked ahead of him but he could see no 
sails nor could he see the hull nor the smoke of any ship. There were only the flying fish 
that went up from his bow sailing away to either side and the yellow patches of Gulf weed. 
He could not even see a bird. 

[106] He had sailed for two hours, resting in the stem and sometimes chewing a bit 
of the meat from the marlin, trying to rest and to be strong, when he saw the first of the 
two sharks. "Ay," he said aloud. There is no translation for this word and perhaps it is 
just a noise such as a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his 
hands and into the wood. 

"Galanos," he said aloud. He had seen the second fin now coming up behind the first 
and had identified them as shovel- nosed sharks by the brown, triangular fin and the 
sweeping movements of the tail. They had the scent and were excited and in the stupidity 
of their great hunger they were losing and finding the scent in their excitement. But they 
were closing all the time. 

The old man made the sheet fast and jammed the tiller. Then he took up the oar with 
the knife lashed to it. He lifted it as lightly as he could because his hands rebelled at the 
pain. Then he opened and closed them on it lightly to loosen them. He closed them firmly 
so they would take the pain now and would not flinch and watched the sharks come. He 
could see their wide, flattened, shovel-pointed heads now and their white tipped wide 
pectoral frns. They were hateful sharks, [107] bad smelling, scavengers as well as killers, 
and when they were hungry they would bite at an oar or the mdder of a boat. It was these 
sharks that would cut the turtles' legs and flippers off when the turtles were asleep on the 
surface, and they would hit a man in the water, if they were hungry, even if the man had 
no smell of fish blood nor of fish slime on him. 

"Ay," the old man said. "Galanos. Come on galanos." 

They came. But they did not come as the Mako had come. One turned and went out 
of sight under the skiff and the old man could feel the skiff shake as he jerked and pulled 
on the fish. The other watched the old man with his slitted yellow eyes and then came in 
fast with his half circle of jaws wide to hit the fish where he had already been bitten. The 
line showed clearly on the top of his brown head and back where the brain joined the 
spinal cord and the old man drove the knife on the oar into the juncture, withdrew it, and 
drove it in again into the shark's yellow cat-like eyes. The shark let go of the frsh and slid 
down, swallowing what he had taken as he died. 

The skiff was still shaking with the destruction the other shark was doing to the frsh 
and the old man let [108] go the sheet so that the skiff would swing broadside and bring 

- 40 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

the shark out from under. When he saw the shark he leaned over the side and punched at 
him. He hit only meat and the hide was set hard and he barely got the knife in. The blow 
hurt not only his hands but his shoulder too. But the shark came up fast with his head out 
and the old man hit him squarely in the center of his flat- topped head as his nose came 
out of water and lay against the fish. The old man withdrew the blade and punched the 
shark exactly in the same spot again. He still hung to the fish with his jaws hooked and 
the old man stabbed him in his left eye. The shark still hung there. 

"No?" the old man said and he drove the blade between the vertebrae and the brain. 
It was an easy shot now and he felt the cartilage sever. The old man reversed the oar and 
put the blade between the shark's jaws to open them. He twisted the blade and as the 
shark slid loose he said, "Go on, galano. Slide down a mile deep. Go see your friend, or 
maybe it's your mother." 

The old man wiped the blade of his knife and laid down the oar. Then he found the 
sheet and the sail filled and he brought the skiff onto her course. 

[ 109] "They must have taken a quarter of him and of the best meat," he said aloud. "I 
wish it were a dream and that I had never hooked him. I'm sorry about it, fish. It makes 
everything wrong." He stopped and he did not want to look at the fish now. Drained of 
blood and awash he looked the colour of the silver backing of a minor and his stripes still 

"I shouldn't have gone out so far, fish," he said. "Neither for you nor for me. I'm 
sorry, fish." 

Now, he said to himself. Look to the lashing on the knife and see if it has been cut. 
Then get your hand in order because there still is more to come. 

"I wish I had a stone for the knife," the old man said after he had checked the lashing 
on the oar butt. "I should have brought a stone." You should have brought many things, 
he thought. But you did not bring them, old man. Now is no time to think of what you do 
not have. Think of what you can do with what there is. 

'You give me much good counsel," he said aloud. "I'm tired of it." He held the tiller 
under his arm and soaked both his hands in the water as the skiff drove forward. "God 
knows how much that last one took," he said. 

[110] "But she's much lighter now." He did not want to think of the mutilated 
under- side of the fish. He knew that each of the jerking bumps of the shark had been 
meat tom away and that the fish now made a trail for all sharks as wide as a highway 
through the sea. 

He was a fish to keep a man all winter, he thought Don't think of that. J ust rest and 
try to get your hands in shape to defend what is left of him. The blood smell from my 
hands means nothing now with all that scent in the water. Besides they do not bleed 
much. There is nothing cut that means anything. The bleeding may keep the left from 

What can I think of now? he thought. Nothing. I must think of nothing and wait for 

-41 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

the next ones. I wish it had really been a dream, he thought. But who knows? It might 
have turned out well. 

The next shark that came was a single shovelnose. He came like a pig to the trough if 
a pig had a mouth so wide that you could put your head in it. The old man let him hit the 
fish and then drove the knife on the oar don into his brain. But the shark jerked 
backwards as he rolled and the knife blade snapped. 

The old man settled himself to steer. He did not even watch the big shark sinking 
slowly in the water, [111] showing first life-size, then small, then tiny. That always 
fascinated the old man. But he did not even watch it now. 

"I have the gaff now," he said. "But it will do no good. I have the two oars and the 
tiller and the short club." 

Now they have beaten me, he thought. I am too old to club sharks to death. But I will 
try it as long as I have the oars and the short club and the tiller. 

He put his hands in the water again to soak them. It was getting late in the afternoon 
and he saw nothing but the sea and the sky. There was more wind in the sky than there 
had been, and soon he hoped that he would see land. 

'You're tired, old man," he said. 'You're tired inside." 

The sharks did not hit him again until just before sunset. 

The old man saw the brown fins coming along the wide trail the fish must make in 
the water. 

They were not even quartering on the scent. They were headed straight for the skiff 
swimming side by side. He jammed the tiller, made the sheet fast and reached under the 
stem for the club. It was an oar handle [ 112] from a broken oar sawed off to about two 
and a half feet in length. He could only use it 

effectively with one hand because of the grip of the handle and he took good hold of 
it with his right hand, flexing his hand on it, as he watched the sharks come. They were 
both galanos. 

I must let the first one get a good hold and hit him on the point of the nose or 
straight across the top of the head, he thought. 

The two sharks closed together and as he saw the one nearest him open his jaws and 
sink them into the silver side of the fish, he raised the club high and brought it down 
heavy and slamming onto the top of the shark's broad head. He felt the rubbery solidity 
as the club came down. But he felt the rigidity of bone too and he struck the shark once 
more hard across the point of the nose as he slid down from the fish. 

The other shark had been in and out and now came in again with his jaws wide. The 
old man could see pieces of the meat of the fish spilling white from the comer of his jaws 
as he bumped the fish and closed his jaws. He swung at him and hit only the head and the 
shark looked at him and wrenched the meat loose. The [113] old man swung the club 

- 42 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

down on him again as he slipped away to swallow and hit only the heavy solid 

"Come on, galano," the old man said. "Come in again." 

The shark came in a rush and the old man hit him as he shut his jaws. He hit him 
solidly and from as high up as he could raise the club. This time he felt the bone at the 
base of the brain and he hit him again in the same place while the shark tore the meat 
loose sluggishly and slid down from the fish. 

The old man watched for him to come again but neither shark showed. Then he saw 
one on the surface swimming in circles. He did not see the fin of the other. 

I could not expect to kill them, he thought. I could have in my time. But I have hurt 
them both badly and neither one can feel very good. If I could have used a bat with two 
hands I could have killed the first one surely. Even now, he thought. 

He did not want to look at the fish. He knew that half of him had been destroyed. 
The sun had gone down while he had been in the fight with the sharks. 

"It will be dark soon," he said. "Then I should see [114] the glow of Havana.. If I am 
too far to the eastward I will see the lights of one of the new beaches." 

I cannot be too far out now, he thought. I hope no one has been too worried. There is 
only the boy to worry, of course. But I am sure he would have confidence. Many of the 
older fishermen will worry. Many others too, he thought. I live in a good town. 

He could not talk to the fish anymore because the fish had been ruined too badly. 
Then something came into his head. 

"Half fish," he said. "Fish that you were. I am sorry that I went too far out. I ruined 
us both. But we have killed many sharks, you and I, and ruined many others. How many 
did you ever kill, old fish? You do not have that spear on your head for nothing." 

He liked to think of the fish and what he could do to a shark if he were swimming 
free. I should have chopped the bill off to fight them with, he thought. But there was no 
hatchet and then there was no knife. 

But if I had, and could have lashed it to an oar butt, what a weapon. Then we might 
have fought them together. What will you do now if they come in the night? What can you 

"Fight them," he said. "I'll fight them until I die." 

[ 115] But in the dark now and no glow showing and no lights and only the wind and 
the steady pull of the sail he felt that perhaps he was already dead. He put his two hands 
together and felt the palms. They were not dead and he could bring the pain of life by 
simply opening and closing them. He leaned his back against the stem and knew he was 
not dead. His shoulders told him. 

I have all those prayers I promised if I caught the fish, he thought. But I am too tired 

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The Old Man and the Sea 

to say them now. I better get the sack and put it over my shoulders. 

He lay in the stem and steered and watched for the glow to come in the sky. I have 
half of him, he thought. Maybe I'll have the luck to bring the forward half in. I should 
have some luck. No, he said. You violated your luck when you went too far outside. 

"Don't be silly," he said aloud. "And keep awake and steer. You may have much luck 


"I'd like to buy some if there's any place they sell it," he said. 

What could I buy it with? he asked himself. Could I buy it with a lost harpoon and a 
broken knife and two bad hands? 

'You might," he said. 'You tried to buy it with [116] eighty- four days at sea. They 
nearly sold it to you too." 

I must not think nonsense, he thought. Luck is a thing that comes in many forms and 
who can recognize her? I would take some though in any form and pay what they asked. I 
wish I could see the glow from the lights, he thought. I wish too many things. But that is 
the thing I wish for now. He tried to settle more comfortably to steer and from his pain he 
knew he was not dead. 

He saw the reflected glare of the lights of the city at what must have been around ten 
o'clock at night. They were only perceptible at first as the light is in the sky before the 
moon rises. Then they were steady to see across the ocean which was rough now with the 
increasing breeze. He steered inside of the glow and he thought that now, soon, he must 
hit the edge of the stream. 

Now it is over, he thought. They will probably hit me again. But what can a man do 
against them in the dark without a weapon? 

He was stiff and sore now and his wounds and all of the strained parts of his body 
hurt with the cold of the night. I hope I do not have to fight again, he thought. I hope so 
much I do not have to fight again. 

[117] But by midnight he fought and this time he knew the fight was useless. They 
came in a pack and he could only see the lines in the water that their fins made and their 
phosphorescence as they threw themselves on the fish. He clubbed at heads and heard 
the jaws chop and the shaking of the skiff as they took hold below. He clubbed 
desperately at what he could only feel and hear and he felt something seize the club and it 
was gone. 

He jerked the tiller free from the rudder and beat and chopped with it, holding it in 
both hands and driving it down again and again. But they were up to the bow now and 
driving in one after the other and together, tearing off the pieces of meat that showed 
glowing below the sea as they turned to come once more. 

One came, finally, against the head itself and he knew that it was over. He swung the 
tiller across the shark's head where the jaws were caught in the heaviness of the fish's 
head which would not tear. He swung it once and twice and again. He heard the tiller 

- 44 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

break and he lunged at the shark with the splintered butt. He felt it go in and knowing it 
was sharp he drove it in again. The shark let go and rolled away. That was the [118] last 
shark of the pack that came. There was nothing more for them to eat. 

The old man could hardly breathe now and he felt a strange taste in his mouth. It 
was coppery and sweet and he was afraid of it for a moment. But there was not much of 

He spat into the ocean and said, "Eat that, galanos. And make a dream you've killed 
a man." 

He knew he was beaten now finally and without remedy and he went back to the 
stem and found the jagged end of the tiller would fit in the slot of the mdder well enough 
for him to steer. He settled the sack around his shoulders and put the skiff on her course. 
He sailed lightly now and he had no thoughts nor any feelings of any kind. He was past 
everything now and he sailed the skiff to make his home port as well and as intelligently 
as he could. In the night sharks hit the carcass as someone might pick up crumbs from 
the table. The old man paid no attention to them and did not pay any attention to 
anything except steering. He only noticed how lightly and bow well the skiff sailed now 
there was no great weight beside her. 

[ 119] She's good, he thought. She is sound and not harmed in any way except for the 
tiller. That is easily replaced. He could feel he was inside the current now and he could 
see the lights of the beach colonies along the shore. He knew where he was now and it 
was nothing to get home. 

The wind is our friend, anyway, he thought. Then he added, sometimes. And the 
great sea with our friends and our enemies. And bed, he thought. Bed is my friend. J ust 
bed, he thought. Bed will be a great thing. It is easy when you are beaten, he thought. I 
never knew how easy it was. And what beat you, he thought. 

"Nothing," he said aloud. "I went out too far." 

When he sailed into the little harbour the lights of the Terrace were out and he knew 
everyone was in bed. The breeze had risen steadily and was blowing strongly now. It was 
guiet in the harbour though and he sailed up onto the little patch of shingle below the 
rocks. There was no one to help him so he pulled the boat up as far as he could. Then he 
stepped out and made her fast to a rock. 

[120] He unstepped the mast and furled the sail and tied it. Then he shouldered the 
mast and started to climb. It was then he knew the depth of his tiredness. He stopped for 
a moment and looked back and saw in the reflection from the street light the great tail of 
the fish standing up well behind the skiff's stem. He saw the white naked line of his 
backbone and the dark mass of the head with the projecting bill and all the nakedness 

He started to climb again and at the top he fell and lay for some time with the mast 
across his shoulder. He tried to get up. But it was too difficult and he sat there with the 
mast on his shoulder and looked at the road. A cat passed on the far side going about its 
business and the old man watched it. Then he just watched the road. 

-45 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

Finally he put the mast down and stood up. He picked the mast up and put it on his 
shoulder and started up the road. He had to sit down five times before he reached his 

Inside the shack he leaned the mast against the wall. In the dark he found a water 
bottle and took a drink. Then he lay down on the bed. He pulled the blanket [121] over his 
shoulders and then over his back and legs and he slept face down on the newspapers with 
his arms out straight and the palms of his hands up. 

He was asleep when the boy looked in the door in the morning. It was blowing so 
hard that the drifting- boats would not be going out and the boy had slept late and then 
come to the old man's shack as he had come each morning. The boy saw that the old man 
was breathing and then he saw the old man's hands and he started to cry. He went out 
very guietly to go to bring some coffee and all the way down the road he was crying. 

Many fishermen were around the skiff looking at what was lashed beside it and one 
was in the water, his trousers rolled up, measuring the skeleton with a length of line. 

The boy did not go down. He had been there before and one of the fishermen was 
looking after the skiff for him. "How is he?" one of the fishermen shouted. "Sleeping," the 
boy called. He did not care that they saw him crying. "Let no one disturb him." "He was 
eighteen feet from nose to tail," the fisherman who was measuring him called. 

[ 122] "I believe it," the boy said. 

He went into the Terrace and asked for a can of coffee. 

"Hot and with plenty of milk and sugar in it." 

"Anything more?" 

"No. Afterwards I will see what he can eat." 

"What a fish it was," the proprietor said. "There has never been such a fish. Those 
were two fine fish you took yesterday too." "Damn my fish," the boy said and he started to 
cry again. 

"Do you want a drink of any kind?" the proprietor asked. 

"No," the boy said. 'Tell them not to bother Santiago. I'll be back." 

'Tell him how sorry I am." 

"Thanks," the boy said. 

The boy carried the hot can of coffee up to the old man's shack and sat by him until 
he woke. Once it looked as though he were waking. But he had gone back into heavy sleep 
and the boy had gone across the road to borrow some wood to heat the coffee. 

Finally the old man woke. 

[ 123] "Don't sit up," the boy said. "Drink this." 

- 46 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

He poured some of the coffee in a glass. 

The old man took it and drank it. 

"They beat mg Manolin," he said. "They truly beat me." 

"He didn't beat you. Not the fish." 

"No. Truly. It was afterwards." 

"Pedrico is looking after the skiff and the gear. What do you want done with the 

"Let Pedrico chop it up to use in fish traps." 

"And the spear?" 

'You keep it if you want it." 

"I want it/' the boy said. "Now we must make our plans about the other things." 

"Did they search for me?" 

"Of course. With coast guard and with planes." 

"The ocean is very big and a skiff is small and hard to see/' the old man said. He 
noticed how pleasant it was to have someone to talk to instead of speaking only to 
himself and to the sea. "I missed you/' he said. "What did you catch?" "One the first day. 
One the second and two the third." 

[124] 'Very good." 

"Now we fish together again. " 

"No. I am not lucky. I am not lucky anymore." 

"The hell with luck/' the boy said. "I'll bring the luck with me." 

"What will your family say?" 

"I do not care. I caught two yesterday. But we will fish together now for I still have 
much to learn." 

"We must get a good killing lance and always have it on board. You can make the 
blade from a spring leaf from an old Ford. We can grind it in Guanabacoa. It should be 
sharp and not tempered so it will break. My knife broke." 

"I'll get another knife and have the spring ground." 

How many days of heavy brisa have we?" 

"Maybe three. Maybe more." 

"I will have everything in order/' the boy said. 'You get your hands well old man." 

-47 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

"I know how to care for them. In the night I spat something strange and felt 
something in my chest was broken." "Get that well too," the boy said. "Lie down, old man, 
and I will bring you your clean shirt. And something to eat." 

[ 125] "Bring any of the papers of the time that I was gone," the old man said. 

'You must get well fast for there is much that I can learn and you can teach me 

How much did you suffer?" 'Plenty," the old man said. 

"I'll bring the food and the papers," the boy said. "Rest well, old man. I will bring 
stuff from the drugstore for your hands." 

"Don't forget to tell Pedrico the head is his." 

"No. I will remember." 

As the boy went out the door and down the worn coral rock road he was crying again. 

That afternoon there was a party of tourists at the Terrace and looking down in the 
water among the empty beer cans and dead barracudas a woman saw a great long white 
spine with a huge tail at the end that lifted and swung with the tide while the east wind 
blew a heavy steady sea outside the entrance to the harbour. 

"What's that?" she asked a waiter and pointed to the long backbone of the great fish 
that was now just garbage waiting to go out with the tide. 

'Tiburon," the waiter said. "Shark." He was meaning to explain what had happened. 

"I didn't know sharks had such handsome, beautifully formed tails." 

"I didn't either," her male companion said. 

Up the road, in his shack, the old man was sleeping again. He was still sleeping on 
his face and the boy was sitting by him watching him. The old man was dreaming about 
the lions. 


- 48 - 

The Old Man and the Sea 

Ernest Hemingway, Writer 

• Bom: 21 J uly 1899 

• Birthplace: Oak Park, Illinois 

• Died: 2 J uly 1961 (suicide) 

• Best Known As: Famously manly author of For Whom the Bell 

Hemingway is one of the 20th century's most famous American writers. His 
books include The Sun Also Rises ( 1926), A Farewell to Arms ( 1929), and For 
Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). Hemingway's plainspoken no- frills writing style 
became so famous that it was (and is) freguendy parodied. His dashing 
machismo was almost as famous as his writing: he lived in Paris, Cuba and Key 
West, fancied bullfighting and big game hunting, and served as a war 
correspondent in WWII and the Spanish Civil War. He sealed his own notoriety 
when he killed himself with a shotgun in 1961. 

Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954... 
Hemingway is sometimes called by his familiar nickname "Papa"... His 
birthdate is sometimes listed in error as 1898. According to a 1954 article in the 
New York Times, "In most reference books and in his own conversation he is 
one year older because he gave 1898 as his birth date when he tried to enlist [in 
the army] early in 1917, and stuck to that date ever since"... Hemingway's father 
also committed suicide, shooting himself with a Civil War pistol in 1928. 


Novels/ Novellas 

• ( 1925) The Torrents of Spring 

• ( 1926) The Sun Also Rises 

• ( 1929) A Farewell to Arms 

• ( 1937) To Have and Have Not 

• ( 1940) For Whom the Bell Tolls 

• ( 1950) Across the River and Into the Trees 

• ( 1952) The Old Man and the Sea 

• ( 1962) Adventures of a Young Man 


The Old Man and the Sea 

• (1970) Islands in the Stream 

• ( 1986) The Garden of Eden 

• (1932) Death in the Afternoon 

• ( 1935) Green Hills of Africa 

• ( 1960) The Dangerous Summer 

• ( 1964) A Moveable Feast 

• (2003) Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters 19 17- 196 1 

• (2005) Under Kilimanjaro 
Short story collections 

• ( 1923) Three Stories and Ten Poems 

• ( 1925) In Our Time 

• ( 1927) Men Without Women 

• ( 1932) The Snows of Kilimanjaro 

• ( 1933) Winner Take Nothing 

• ( 1938) The Fifth Column and the First Forty- Nine Stories 

• ( 1947) The Essential Hemingway 

• ( 1953) The Hemingway Reader 

• ( 1972) The Nick Adams Stories 

• ( 1976) The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway 

• (1995) Collected Stories